Unit 1

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
tedious/‘tiːdɪəs/adj. 沉闷的;冗长乏味的
oblige/ə’blaɪdʒ/vt. 迫使;强制;赐,施恩惠;责成;义务;vi. 帮忙;施恩惠
absorbed/əb’sɔːbd/adj. 被吸收的;一心一意的,极感兴趣的,全身贯注的,专注的
allergic/ə’lɜːdʒɪk/adj. (be ~ to sth) 不喜欢做某事,对某事反感;过敏的
excursion/ɪk’skɜːʃ(ə)n; ek-/n. 偏移;远足;短程旅行;离题;游览,游览团
earnest/‘ɜːnɪst/n. 认真;定金;诚挚;adj. 认真的,郑重其事的;热心的;重要的
exclaim/ɪk’skleɪm; ek-/vt. 大声说出;vi. (由于惊奇、气愤或激动)呼喊,惊叫;大声叫嚷
whoa/wəʊ/int. 惊叹声;哎呀,哇!(表示惊讶或认为某事物令人赞叹)
civilization/ˌsɪvɪlaɪˈzeɪʃən/n. 文明;文化
architecture/‘ɑːkɪtektʃə/n. 建筑学;建筑风格;建筑式样;架构
capture/‘kæptʃə/n. 捕获;战利品,俘虏;vt. 俘获;夺得;捕捉;记录,拍摄,录制
condense/kən’dens/vt. 使浓缩;使压缩;vi. 浓缩;凝结
condensed/kən’denst/adj. 压缩的,扼要的
exceed/ɪk’siːd; ek-/vt. 超过;胜过;vi. 超过其他
distress/dɪ’stres/n. 危难,不幸;贫困;忧虑,苦恼,悲痛;vt. 使悲痛;使贫困
distinguish/dɪ’stɪŋgwɪʃ/vt. 区分;辨别;使杰出,使表现突出;vi. 区别,区分;辨别
distinctive/dɪ’stɪŋ(k)tɪv/adj. 有特色的,与众不同的
complimentary/kɒmplɪ’ment(ə)rɪ/adj. 免费赠送的;称赞的,赞美的;问候的
complementary/kɒmplɪ’ment(ə)rɪ/adj. 补足的,补充的;互补的
bulk/bʌlk/n. 体积,容量;大多数,大部分;大块;(the ~ of sth)某物的大部分,多半;vt. 使扩大,使形成大量;使显得重要
criticism/‘krɪtɪsɪz(ə)m/n. 批评;考证;苛求
deficit/‘defɪsɪt; ‘diː-/n. 赤字;不足,缺乏;亏损
dumb/dʌm/adj. 哑的,无说话能力的;不说话的,无声音的;愚蠢的
grocery/‘grəʊs(ə)rɪ/n. 食品杂货店;食品杂货;超级市场(AmE supermarket)
stationary/‘steɪʃ(ə)n(ə)rɪ/n. 不动的人;驻军;adj. 固定的;静止的;定居的;常备军的
stationery/‘steɪʃ(ə)n(ə)rɪ/n. 文具,信纸
pad/pæd/n. 衬垫;护具;便笺簿;填补;vt. 填补;走;vi. 步行;放轻脚步走
album/‘ælbəm/n. 相簿;唱片集;集邮簿;签名纪念册
proclaim/prə’kleɪm/vt. 宣告,公布;声明;表明;赞扬
scandal/‘skænd(ə)l/n. 丑闻,令人震惊的事;流言蜚语;诽谤;公愤
thrust/θrʌst/n. [力] 推力;刺;vt. 插;插入;推挤;vi. 插入;向某人刺去;猛然或用力推
proficiency/prə’fɪʃ(ə)nsɪ/n. 精通,熟练
moreover/mɔːr’əʊvə/adv. 而且,此外
evidently/‘evɪd(ə)ntlɪ/adv. 显然,明显地;清楚地
exposure/ɪk’spəʊʒə; ek-/n. 暴露;曝光;揭露;陈列;体验;接触
adequate/‘ædɪkwət/adj. 足够的,充足的;适当的;胜任的;合乎需要的
adequately/‘ædikwitli/adv. 充分地;足够地;适当地
competent/‘kɒmpɪt(ə)nt/adj. 胜任的,合格的;有能力的;能干的;足够的
jerk/dʒɜːk/n. 肌肉抽搐;性情古怪的人;蠢人;急拉;vt. 猛拉;vi. 痉挛;急拉;颠簸地行进
jerky/‘dʒɜːkɪ/n. 牛肉干;adj. 抽筋的;急动的;(在行进中)不平稳的,颠簸的
function/‘fʌŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n/n. 功能,作用;职责;正常工作;[数] 函数;盛大的集会;vi. 运行;活动;行使职责
span/spæn/n. 跨度;间距,跨距;期间;范围;vt. 跨越;持续;以手指测量;贯穿;弥补
scratch/skrætʃ/n. 擦伤;抓痕;刮擦声;乱写;从头开始,白手起家;vt. 抓;刮;挖出;乱涂;vi. 抓;搔;发刮擦声;勉强糊口;退出比赛;adj. 打草稿用的;凑合的;碰巧的
tune/tjuːn/n. 曲调;和谐;心情;vt. 调整;使一致;为…调音;vi. [电子][通信] 调谐;协调
adjust/ə’dʒʌst/vt. 调整,使…适合;校准;vi. 调整,校准;适应
destination/,destɪ’neɪʃ(ə)n/n. 目的地,终点
precise/prɪ’saɪs/adj. 精确的;明确的;严格的
beneficial/benɪ’fɪʃ(ə)l/adj. 有益的,有利的;有帮助的;可享利益的
asset/‘æset/n. 资产;优点;有用的东西;有利条件;财产;有价值的人或物
sour/saʊə/n. 酸味;苦事;vt. 使变酸;使失望;vi. 发酵;变酸;厌烦;adj. 酸的;发酵的;刺耳的;酸臭的;讨厌的
subjunctive/səb’dʒʌŋ(k)tɪv/n. 虚拟语气;adj. 虚拟的;虚拟语气的
activist/‘æktɪvɪst/n. 活动家,积极分子;激进分子
mysterious/mɪ’stɪərɪəs/adj. 神秘的;不可思议的;难解的
mysteriously/mɪ’stɪərɪəslɪ/adv. 神秘地;故弄玄虚地;难以理解地
assassinate/ə’sæsɪneɪt/vt. 暗杀;行刺
autobiography/ɔːtəbaɪ’ɒgrəfɪ/n. 自传;自传文学
household/‘haʊshəʊld/n. 全家人,一家人;(包括佣工在内的)家庭,户;adj. 家庭的;日常的;王室的
mainstream/‘meɪnstriːm/n. 主流;adj. 主流的
specifically/spɪ’sɪfɪkəlɪ/adv. 特别地,特定地,具体地,专门地;详尽地,明确地
inadequate/ɪn’ædɪkwət/adj. 不充分的,不适当的;(对某一特定目的而言)不够好的,不足的,不强的
sketch/sketʃ/n. 素描;略图;梗概,概况,简述;vt. 画素描或速写;vi. 画素描或速写
rally/‘rælɪ/n. 大型公众集会(尤指支持某种政治观点、抗议等在户外举行的集会);回复;公路赛车会;vt. 团结;集合;恢复健康、力量等;vi. 团结;重整;恢复;(网球等)连续对打
functional/‘fʌŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n(ə)l/n. [数]泛函;adj. 正常运转的,功能的,实用的
bid/bɪd/n. (为争取某物而做出的)努力,(尤指拍卖的)出价;叫牌;vt. 投标;出价;表示;叫牌;vi. 投标;吩咐
desperate/‘desp(ə)rət/adj. 不顾一切的;令人绝望的;极度渴望的;(由于处在绝境而)不惜冒险的,拼命的
devise/dɪ’vaɪz/n. 遗赠;vt. 设计;想出;发明;图谋;遗赠给
scheme/skiːm/n. (为取得某项成功而定制的)计划;组合;体制;诡计;vt. 计划;策划;vi. 搞阴谋;拟订计划
clue/kluː/n.(帮助理解和找到答案的)线索;(故事等的)情节;vt. 为…提供线索;为…提供情况
quest/kwest/n. 追求;寻找;(长期的)探索;vt. 探索;vi. 追求;寻找
appeal/ə’piːl/n. 呼吁,请求;吸引力,感染力;上诉;诉诸裁判;vt. 将…上诉,对…上诉;vi. 呼吁,恳求;上诉;诉诸,求助;有吸引力,迎合爱好;(体育比赛中)诉诸裁判
skim/skɪm/n. 撇;撇去的东西;浮沫,表层物;瞒报所得的收入;脱脂物;略读;vt. 略读,浏览;撇去…的浮物;从…表面飞掠而过;去除;(为逃税而)隐瞒(部分收入);vi. 浏览;掠过adj. 脱脂的;撇去浮沫的;表层的
negotiate/nɪ’gəʊʃɪeɪt/vt. (尤指在商业或政治上)谈判,商议;转让;越过;(成功地)解决,处理,克服;vi. 谈判,交涉
format/‘fɔːmæt/n. 格式;版式;开本;设计,安排,组织;vt. 使格式化;规定…的格式;vi. 设计版式
moist/mɒɪst/n. 潮湿;adj. 潮湿的;多雨的;含泪的
moisture/‘mɒɪstʃə/n. 水分,水汽,湿气;湿度;潮湿;降雨量
advisable/əd’vaɪzəb(ə)l/adj. 明智的,可取的,适当的
advisory/əd’vaɪz(ə)rɪ/n. 报告;公告;adj. 咨询的;顾问的;劝告的
crude/kruːd/n. 原油;天然的物质;adj. 粗糙的,粗制的;天然的,未经提炼的,未加工的;粗鲁的
quotation/kwə(ʊ)’teɪʃ(ə)n/n. [贸易] 报价单;引用语,引文;引证
quotation mark/n/引号
recall/rɪ’kɔːl/n. 召回;回忆;撤消;vt. 召回;回想起,记起;取消
log/lɒg/n. 记录;(航海、飞行)日志;原木,圆木;vt. 切;伐木;航行;vi. 伐木
repetition/repɪ’tɪʃ(ə)n/n. 重复;背诵;副本
literacy/‘lɪt(ə)rəsɪ/n. 有文化,读写能力;精通文学
depict/dɪ’pɪkt/vt. 描写,描述;描画
acquisition/,ækwɪ’zɪʃ(ə)n/n. 获得物,(知识、技能的)获得,习得;收购
marvelous/ˈmɑːvələs/adj. 了不起的,极好的,绝妙的;非凡的;令人惊异的;不平常的
successive/sək’sesɪv/adj. 连续的;继承的;依次的,连接的,相继的,接替的
confusion/kən’fjuːʒ(ə)n/n. 混淆,混乱;困惑
diminish/dɪ’mɪnɪʃ/vt. 使减少;使变小;vi. 减少,缩小;变小
concentration/kɒns(ə)n’treɪʃ(ə)n/n. 浓度;浓缩;专心,集中精力;集合
fluent/‘fluːənt/adj. (语言或文字)流畅熟练的,流利的;液态的;畅流的
fluently/ˈfluːəntlɪ/adv. (语言或文字)流畅熟练地;通畅地
poverty/‘pɒvətɪ/n. 贫困;困难;缺少;低劣
ignorance/‘ɪgn(ə)r(ə)ns/n. 无知,愚昧,不知,不懂
horizon/hə’raɪz(ə)n/n. [天] 地平线;视野;界限;眼界;(思想、知识以及经验的)范围
expand/ɪk’spænd; ek-/vt. 扩张;使膨胀;详述;vi. 发展;张开,展开

Phrases and expressions

  1. be/feel obliged to do sth. 非做不可,迫使
  2. get/be serious about 对……是认真的
  3. run into sb. 偶然遇见某人
  4. fresh from 刚从……来的,刚有……经历的
  5. distinguish between 区分,辨别
  6. nail sth. down 将某物钉牢
  7. thrust sth. upon sb. 迫使某人做某事
  8. get/feel/be lost 迷茫,不知所措
  9. become/be attracted to sth. 对某事/物产生兴趣
  10. out of curiosity 出于好奇
  11. look upon sb./sth. as 把某物/某事看作
  12. be equipped with sth. 以……为装备,配备……
  13. swell with pride/anger 洋洋得意/怒气冲冲
  14. apply to 适用,适宜
  15. in a bid to do sth 为争取某物而努力
  16. end up (with) (尤指经历一系列意料之外的事情)最终处于…
  17. speak of 提到,提及
  18. launch sb. on sth. 使某人开始进行某事
  19. get hold of sth. 找(借)来某物
  20. appeal to sb. for sth. 请求某人提供某物
  21. focus on 给予…特别的关注
  22. leave...behind (永久地)离开;脱离与…的联系

Articles

A

An impressive English lesson

图片

Para. 1

If I am the only parent who still corrects his child’s English, then perhaps my son is right. To him, I am a tedious oddity: a father he is obliged to listen to and a man absorbed in the rules of grammar, which my son seems allergic to.

如果我是唯一一个还在纠正小孩英语的家长,那么我儿子也许是对的。对他而言,我是一个乏味的怪物:一个他不得不听其教诲的父亲,一个还沉湎于语法规则的人,对此我儿子似乎颇为反感。

Para. 2

I think I got serious about this only recently when I ran into one of my former students, fresh from an excursion to Europe. “How was it?” I asked, full of earnest anticipation.

我觉得我是在最近偶遇我以前的一位学生时,才开始对这个问题认真起来的。这个学生刚从欧洲旅游回来。我满怀着诚挚期待问她:“欧洲之行如何?”

Para. 3

She nodded three or four times, searched the heavens for the right words, and then exclaimed, “It was, like, whoa!”

她点了三四下头,绞尽脑汁,苦苦寻找恰当的词语,然后惊呼:“真是,哇!”

Para. 4

And that was it. The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture were captured in a condensed non-statement. My student’s “whoa!” was exceeded only by my head-shaking distress.

没了。所有希腊文明和罗马建筑的辉煌居然囊括于一个浓缩的、不完整的语句之中!我的学生以“哇!”来表示她的惊叹,我只能以摇头表达比之更强烈的忧虑。

Para. 5

There are many different stories about the downturn in the proper use of English. Surely students should be able to distinguish between their/there/they’re or the distinctive difference between complimentary and complementary. They unfairly bear the bulk of the criticism for these knowledge deficits because there is a sense that they should know better.

关于正确使用英语能力下降的问题,有许多不同的故事。学生的确本应该能够区分诸如their/there/they’re之间的不同,或区别complimentary 跟complementary之间显而易见的差异。由于这些知识缺陷,他们承受着大部分不该承受的批评和指责,因为舆论认为他们应该学得更好。

Para. 6

Students are not dumb, but they are being misled everywhere they look and listen. For example, signs in grocery stores point them to the stationary, even though the actual stationery items — pads, albums and notebooks — are not nailed down. Friends and loved ones often proclaim they’ve just ate when, in fact, they’ve just eaten. Therefore, it doesn’t make any sense to criticize our students.

学生并不笨,他们只是被周围所看到和听到的语言误导了。举例来说,杂货店的指示牌会把他们引向stationary(静止处),虽然便笺本、相册、和笔记本等真正的stationery(文具用品)并没有被钉在那儿。朋友和亲人常宣称 They’ve just ate。实际上,他们应该说 They’ve just eaten。因此,批评学生不合乎情理。

Para. 7

Blame for the scandal of this language deficit should be thrust upon our schools, which should be setting high standards of English language proficiency. Instead, they only teach a little grammar and even less advanced vocabulary. Moreover, the younger teachers themselves evidently have little knowledge of these vital structures of language because they also went without exposure to them. Schools fail to adequately teach the essential framework of language, accurate grammar and proper vocabulary, while they should take the responsibility of pushing the young onto the path of competent communication.

对这种缺乏语言功底而引起的负面指责应归咎于我们的学校。学校应对英语熟练程度制定出更高的标准。可相反,学校只教零星的语法,高级词汇更是少之又少。还有就是,学校的年轻教师显然缺乏这些重要的语言结构方面的知识,因为他们过去也没接触过。学校有责任教会年轻人进行有效的语言沟通,可他们并没把语言的基本框架——准确的语法和恰生来说,有效、准确且富有成效的沟通技能取决于语法和词汇这两大有利条件,可是学校并没有教他们这些。

Para. 8

Since grammar is boring to most of the young students, I think that it must be handled delicately, step by step. The chance came when one day I was driving with my son. As we set out on our trip, he noticed a bird in jerky flight and said, “It’s flying so unsteady.” I carefully asked, “My son, how is the bird flying?” “What’s wrong? Did I say anything incorrectly?” He got lost. “Great! You said incorrectly instead of incorrect. We use adverbs to describe verbs. Therefore, it’s flying so unsteadily but not so unsteady.”

因为语法对大多数年轻学生而言枯燥且乏味,所以我觉得讲授语法得一步一步、注重技巧地进行。 有一天机会来了。我跟儿子开车外出。 我们出发时,他看到一只小鸟飞得很不稳,就说:“它飞的不稳。”(It’s flying so unsteady.) 我小心翼翼地问:“儿子,鸟怎么飞?” “有问题吗?我说得不对吗?(Did I say anything incorrectly?)” 他一头雾水。 “太好了, 你说的是incorrectly而不是incorrect。我们用副词来描述动词。所以,要用unsteadily来描述鸟飞 ,而不是unsteady。”

Para. 9

Curious about my correction, he asked me what an adverb was. Slowly, I said, “It’s a word that tells you something about a verb.” It led to his asking me what a verb was. I explained, “Verbs are action words; for example, Dad drives the truck. Drive is the verb because it’s the thing Dad is doing.”

他对我的纠正很好奇,就问我什么是副词。 我慢慢解释道:“副词是用来修饰动词的词。” 这又导致了他询问我什么是动词。 我解释说:“动词是表示行为的词,例如:爸爸开卡车。“开”是动词,因为它是爸爸在做的事。”

Para. 10

He became attracted to the idea of action words, so we listed a few more: fly, swim, dive, run. Then, out of his own curiosity, he asked me if other words had names for their use and functions. This led to a discussion of nouns, adjectives, and articles. Within the span of a 10-minute drive, he had learned from scratch to the major parts of speech in a sentence. It was painless learning and great fun!

他开始对表示行为的词产生兴趣,所以我们又罗列了几个动词:“飞行”、“游泳”、“跳水”、“跑步”。 然后,他又好奇地问我,其他的词有没有说明它们的用法和功能的名称。 这就引发了我们对名词、形容词和冠词的讨论。 在短短十分钟的驾驶时间内,他从对语法一无所知到学会了句子中主要词语的词性。 这是一次毫无痛苦而又非常有趣的学习经历。

Para. 11

Perhaps, language should be looked upon as a road map and a valuable possession: often study the road map (check grammar) and tune up the car engine (adjust vocabulary). Learning grammar and a good vocabulary is just like driving with a road map in a well-conditioned car.

也许,语言应该被看成是一张路线图和一件珍品:我们要常常查看路线图(核对语法)和调整汽车的引擎(调节词汇)。 学好语法和掌握大量的词汇就好比拿着路线图在车况良好的车里驾驶。

Para. 12

The road map provides the framework and guidance you need for your trip, but it won’t tell you exactly what trees or flowers you will see, what kind of people you will encounter, or what types of feelings you will be experiencing on your journey. Here, the vocabulary makes the journey true colors come alive! A good vocabulary enable you to enjoy whatever you see as you drive along. Equipped with grammar and a good vocabulary, you have flexibility and excellent control. While the road map guides your journey to your destination, an excellent vehicle helps you to fully enjoy all of the sights, sounds and experiences along the way.

路线图为你的旅行提供所需的基本路线和路途指南,可是它不会告诉你一路上你究竟会看见什么树或什么花,你会遇见什么样的人,或会有什么样的感受。 这里,词汇会使你的旅途变得五彩缤纷、栩栩如生。 大量的词汇让你享受到开车途中所见的点点滴滴。 借助语法和丰富的词汇,你就有了灵活性,掌控自如。 路线图会把你带到目的地,而一台好车却能让你完全陶醉于旅途的所有景色、声音及经历之中。

Para. 13

Effective, precise and beneficial communication depends upon grammar and a good vocabulary the two essential assets for students, but they are not being taught in schools.

对学生来说,有效、准确且富有成效的沟通技能取决于语法和词汇这两大有利条件,可是学校并没有教他们这些。

Para. 14

Just this morning, my son and I were eating breakfast when I attempted to add milk to my tea. “Dad,” he said, “If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. It’s sour.”

就在今天早上,我跟儿子吃早饭时,我想把牛奶加入我的茶里。“爸爸,” 他说,“如果我是你的话,我不会这样做。牛奶会变酸。(If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. It’s sour.)”

Para. 15

“Oh my!” I said, swelling with pride toward my son, “That’s a grammatically perfect sentence. You used were instead of was.”

“哦,上帝!” 我满怀着无比的骄傲说道,“这是一句语法完全正确的句子。你用了were而不是was。”

Para. 16

“I know, I know,” he said with a long agreeable sigh. “It’s the subjunctive mood.”

“我知道,我知道,”他愉悦地舒了口气,“这是虚拟语气!”

Para. 17

I was like, whoa!

这下轮到我“哇!”了。

B

The Great journey of learning

Para.1

Malcolm X was an African-American civil rights activist, religious leader, writer, and speaker. Born in 1925, he was mysteriously assassinated in 1965. By the time of his death, his own telling of his life story, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, had been widely known. He was born Malcolm Little into a poor household. Later, he took the name Malcolm X after joining an organization called the Nation of Islam, a religious group that had changed major practices and beliefs of mainstream Islam to apply more specifically to the condition of African-American people in the United States in the early 1960s.

马尔科姆·艾克斯是一位非裔美国民权活动家、宗教领袖、作家和演说家。他生于 1925 年, 1965 年被神秘地暗杀。在他去世之前,他对自己生平的自述——《马尔科姆·艾克斯自传》已闻名遐迩。他出生于一个贫民家庭,取名马尔科姆·利特尔。后来,他加入了一个叫“伊斯兰民族”的组织,之后改名为马尔科姆·艾克斯。“伊斯兰民族”是个宗教团体,它改变了美国主流伊斯兰教的一些主要的习俗和信仰,使之更适用于 19 世纪 60 年代早期非裔美国人的特定情况。

Para.2

Malcolm X learned about the Nation of Islam while in prison for committing criminal acts such as theft. Because he was poorly educated, he felt inadequate to teach his new beliefs to others. As a young man, he could sketch his thoughts with poor grammar and little vocabulary using the simple, unsophisticated language of people on the street. As an adult, when he tried to inform people about his new beliefs at a rally, he found that he didn’t have the adequate communication skills he needed. In his own words, he “wasn’t even functional”.

马尔科姆·艾克斯因当时犯有诸如偷窃等罪而入狱。他在监狱里得知了“伊斯兰民族”组织。由于没有受过良好的教育,他在向别人传授他的新信仰时感到力不从心。作为一名年轻人,他可以用草根语言来概述自己的想法,语言简单、粗浅、语法差劲,且词汇贫乏。可作为一名成年人,当他在大型公众集会上向人们阐述他的新信仰时,他发觉自己缺少了所需的语言交流技能。用他自己的话说,他“甚至没有这个功能”。

Para.3

In a bid to increase his knowledge and improve his skills, desperate Malcolm X devised a scheme. He turned to books, believing this would be beneficial. However, when he tried to read serious books on his own, he was distressed as he didn’t know most of the words. “They might as well have been in Chinese,” he wrote. He skipped all the words he didn’t know and then would end up with no clue as to what the book was about. “became frustrated,” Malcolm X wrote in his autobiography, speaking of his inadequate language skills.

为了增长知识,提高沟通技能,深陷绝望的马尔科姆·艾克斯为自己制定了一个计划。他决定求助于书籍,相信书会使他受益匪浅。可是当他试图阅读一些严肃的书本时,他不禁倍感苦恼,因为大部分的词他都不认识。他写道:“这些书还不如是用中文写的。”他跳过了所有不认识的词,可是最终他全然不知这本书里写了什么。马尔科姆·艾克斯在他的自传里谈到他贫乏的语言技能时是这样写的:“我变得沮丧起来。”

Para.4

Malcolm X’s considerable frustration at his inability to read and write launched him on a quest to overcome his deficiencies. He said, “I saw that the best thing I could do was get hold of a dictionary - to study, to learn some words,” And he was lucky enough to reason also that he should try to improve his handwriting. “It was sad. I couldn’t even write in a straight line,” he told us. These ideas together moved him to appeal to the prison authorities for some paper and pencils.

由于无法阅读和写作所遭受的巨大挫折促使马尔科姆·艾克斯开始探索如何攻克自己的语言缺陷。他说:“我明白我所能做的就是弄到一本词典来学习,学一些单词。”他也幸运地意识到应该尝试去改进他的书写。他告诉我们:“令人伤心的是我甚至不能把英文书写得整齐。”这些想法促使他向狱管请求,要了一些纸和铅笔。

Para.5

For the first two days, Malcolm X just skimmed through the pages of the dictionary trying to negotiate his way through its unfamiliar format. He told us of his amazement at how closely related the words seemed. How moist could be the root of moisture, and advisable and advisory had the same root word! “I didn’t know which words I needed to learn, he said, “finally, just to start some kind of action, I began copying.” In his slow, careful, crude handwriting, Malcolm X copied everything on the first full page of the dictionary into a notebook. He even copied the quotation marks! This took him one full day. After that, he read everything he had written aloud. “Over and over, aloud, to myself, I read my own handwriting,” Malcolm recalled. He also logged important things that happened every day. Repetition helped move him from basic literacy toward true proficiency.

头两天,马尔科姆·艾克斯只是很快地浏览了一下词典,试图在这不熟悉的格式里寻找出他自己的应付方法。他告诉我们,他对这些单词之间的密切关系感到诧异。moist 怎么会是moisture的词根;advisable跟advisory竟是同根词!“我都不知道哪些单词我需要学,”他说,“最后,为了有所行动,我开始抄写词典。”马尔科姆·艾克斯用他缓慢、仔细、蹩脚的书写,把词典的第一页全都抄写在一个笔记本上,他甚至把引号也抄了。这花了他整整一天的时间。在此之后,他高声朗读所有抄写下来的东西。“我一遍又一遍地给自己大声朗读自己抄写的东西。”马尔科姆回忆道。他还把每天发生的重要事情记录下来。重复朗读帮助他从一个仅有一些基础文化知识的人变成真正精通语言的人。

Para.6

Malcolm X depicted how the next morning when he woke up, he kept thinking about the words he had copied and read aloud and about the acquisition of the knowledge he was pursuing. It was a marvelous feeling. He felt immensely proud.

马尔科姆·艾克斯描述了他第二天醒来时,是如何努力回忆他抄写和朗读过的单词及他苦苦追求所获的知识。这是一种神奇的感觉,他感到无比自豪。

Para.7

He was so fascinated that he went on copying the dictionary’s next page. Once again, he awoke, proud and energized. With every succeeding page he copied and read aloud, Malcolm X found he was learning and remembering more and more words. With each successive day, his confusion diminished.

他对此如此着迷以至于他又继续抄写词典的下一页。又一次,他醒来时感到骄傲且精力充沛。随着不断抄写和朗读,马尔科姆·艾克斯发现自己在学到东西,也记住了越来越多的单词,他的困惑也逐日减少。

Para.8

As Malcolm X’s word base broadened, he began to better understand the books he read. It was the first time in his life this had ever happened, “Anyone who has read a great deal can imagine the new world that opened.” From then until he left that prison, his concentration was focused on reading. He was so absorbed in it. Months passed without his even thinking about being in prison. “In fact, up to then, I never had been so truly free in my life.”

随着马尔科姆·艾克斯的词汇量不断扩大,他开始能更好地理解所阅读的书了。这种现象在他的一生中从未发生过。“任何一个阅读广泛的人都能想象那个开启了的新世界。”从那时起到他离开那个监狱,他一直专注于阅读,被它深深吸引。数月过去了,他竟然没感到自己在坐牢。“事实上,在这之前,我从没如此真正地感受过生活的自由。”

Para.9

“I knew right there in prison that reading had changed forever the course of my life,” Malcolm X wrote. He described how one day a writer telephoned him from London for an interview. The interviewer asked Malcolm X what college he had graduated from as he could write so fluently. He told the Englishman that his own personal university was “books”.

“就是在监狱里我意识到阅读永远地改变了我的人生轨迹,”马尔科姆·艾克斯写道。他描述了有一天一位作家从伦敦打电话来采访他。那位作家问马尔科姆·艾克斯,他文笔那么流畅,是从什么大学毕业的。马尔科姆告诉那位英国人他的大学是“书本”。

Para.10

Malcolm X’s life is a wonderful example of the profound effect of learning a language. He was born into a world full of poverty and ignorance. However, as he acquired knowledge, his horizons expanded. He had left behind the narrow, ignorant world of his youth to join the world community of thoughts and actions ever since he started with his great journey of learning English in prison.

马尔科姆·艾克斯的一生成功地创造了一个通过语言学习而深刻改变人生的光辉典范。他出生于贫穷、无知的世界。可是,知识开阔了他的眼界。从他在监狱里踏上伟大的英语学习之旅起,他就离开了青年时代狭窄、无知的世界,加入到有思想、有作为的世界之中。

Unit 2

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
accounting/ə’kaʊntɪŋ/n. 会计,会计学;账单
calculate/‘kælkjʊleɪt/vt. 计算;预测;认为;打算;vi. 计算;以为;作打算
boost/buːst/n. 推动;帮助;宣扬;vt. 促进;推动,使兴旺;增加;支援;vi. 宣扬;偷窃
prospect/‘prɒspekt/n. 前途,前景;预期,可能的事情,很可能发生的事情;景色;vt. 勘探,勘察;vi. 勘探,找矿
defect/‘diːfekt; dɪ’fekt/n. 缺点,缺陷;不足之处;vi. 变节;叛变
applied/ə’plaɪd/adj. (学科)应用的;实用的
bet/bet/n. 打赌,赌注;被打赌的事物;vt. 打赌;敢断定,确信;vi. 打赌
persist/pə’sɪst/vt. 坚持说,反复说;vi. 存留,坚持;持续,固执
accelerate/ək’seləreɪt/vt. 使……加快;使……增速;vi. 加速;促进;增加
succession/sək’seʃ(ə)n/n.一连串,一系列(同类型的人或物); 连续;继位;继承权;[生态] 演替
liberal/‘lɪb(ə)r(ə)l/n. 自由主义者,开明的人;adj. 自由主义的;慷慨的,大方的;不拘泥的;宽大的;开明的
logical/‘lɒdʒɪk(ə)l/adj. 合乎逻辑的,合理的;逻辑学的
bound/baɪnd/n. 范围,界限,跳跃;v. 跳跃前进,猛涨;adj. 一定的;有义务的;装订的,装有封面的
dominant/‘dɒmɪnənt/n. 显性;adj. 显性的;占优势的地位的,有优势的;支配的,统治的
pillar/‘pɪlə/n. 柱子,柱形物;(信仰或思想)非常重要的部分;栋梁;墩;vt. 用柱支持
vivid/‘vɪvɪd/adj. 生动的;鲜明的;鲜艳的;清晰的
compel/kəm’pel/vt. 强迫,迫使;强使发生
compelling/kəm’pelɪŋ/adj. 引人注目的,引人入胜的;强制的;激发兴趣的
promote/prə’məʊt/vt. 促进;提升;推销;发扬;支持;鼓励;提倡;vi. 成为王后或其他大于卒的子
speculate/‘spekjʊleɪt/vt. 推断;vi. 推测;投机;思索
mystery/ˈmɪst(ə)ri/n. 秘密;不可思议的事物,无法解释的事物,谜;神秘,神秘的事物;推理小说,推理剧;常作 mysteries秘技,秘诀
destruction/dɪ’strʌkʃ(ə)n/n. 破坏,毁灭;摧毁
self-destruction/,selfdi’strʌkʃən/n. 自毁,自残;自杀;
unconscious/ʌn’kɒnʃəs/adj. 无意识的,潜意识的,下意识的;失去知觉的;不省人事的;未发觉的
destructive/dɪ’strʌktɪv/adj. 破坏的;毁灭性的;有害的,消极的
architect/‘ɑːkɪtekt/n. 建筑师;缔造者
philosopher/fɪ’lɒsəfə/n. 哲学家;哲人
landscape/ˈlændskeɪp/n. 风景;风景画;景色;山水画;乡村风景画;地形;(文件的)横向打印格式;vt. 对…做景观美化,给…做园林美化;从事庭园设计;vi. 美化(环境等),使景色宜人;从事景观美化工作,做庭园设计师
fertile/‘fɜːtaɪl/adj. 富饶的,肥沃的;能生育的
elegant/‘elɪg(ə)nt/adj. 高雅的,优雅的;讲究的;简炼的;简洁的;(想法或设计)巧妙的
analysis/ə’nælɪsɪs/n. 分析;分解;验定
spectacular/spek’tækjʊlə/adj. 引人入胜的,非常壮观的,惊人的;公开展示的
brand/brænd/n. 注册商标,品牌;烙印;vt. 铭刻于,铭记;打烙印于;印…商标于
invest/ɪn’vest/vt. 投资;覆盖;耗费;授予;包围;vi. 投资,入股;花钱买
insight/‘ɪnsaɪt/n. 顿悟,洞悉,见解,洞察力,领悟力
therebyadv.因此,从而,借此;在那方面,在那附近
scope/skəʊp/n. (活动、机构或学术)范围;余地;视野;眼界;导弹射程;vt. 审视
undertake/ʌndə’teɪk/vt. 承担,着手;保证;从事;同意;试图
candidate/‘kændɪdeɪt; -dət/n. 候选人,候补者;应试者,考生
breakthrough/‘breɪkθruː/n. 突破;突破性进展;重大发现;重大成就
barrier/‘bærɪə/n. 障碍物,屏障;界线;vt. 把…关入栅栏
liable/‘laɪəb(ə)l/adj. 有责任的,有义务的;应受罚的;有…倾向的,易…的,可能(易于)做某事的
establishment/ɪ’stæblɪʃm(ə)nt; e-/n. 确立,建立,设立;制定;公司;设施
dean/diːn/n. 院长;系主任;教务长;主持牧师
sole/səʊl/n. 鞋底;脚底;基础;鳎目鱼;vt. 触底;上鞋底;adj. 唯一的;单独的;仅有的
solely/‘səʊllɪ/adv. 单独地,唯一地;仅仅,只
reservoir/‘rezəvwɑ: (r)/n. (人造的)水库;(天然)蓄水池;积蓄,储备
outstanding/aʊt’stændɪŋ/n. 未偿贷款;adj. 杰出的;出众的;显著的;未解决的;未偿付的
consensus/kən’sensəs/n. 一致;舆论;合意
shrink/ʃrɪŋk/n. 收缩;畏缩;[俚]精神病学家;vt. 使缩小,使收缩;vi. 收缩;畏缩
revise/rɪ’vaɪz/n. 修订;校订;vt. 修正;复习;校订;vi. 修订;校订;复习功课
reform/rɪ’fɔːm/n. 改革,改良;改正;vt. 改革,革新;重新组成;vi. 重组;改过;adj. 改革的;改革教会的
realistic/rɪə’lɪstɪk/adj. 现实的;现实主义的;逼真的;实在论的
critic/‘krɪtɪk/n. 批评家,(书、电影、戏剧等)评论家;爱挑剔的人
survey/ˈsəːveɪ; (for v.) səˈveɪ/n. 调查;测量;审视;纵览;vt. 调查;勘测;俯瞰;vi. 测量土地
upside/‘ʌpsaɪd/n. 优势,(不良局面中)好的方面;上面
upside down/ adv/颠倒地,倒置地
confirm/kən’fɜːm/vt. 确认;确定;证实;批准;使巩固
fate/feɪt/n. 命运,(尤指)厄运;vt. 注定
quiver/‘kwɪvə/n. 颤抖;箭袋;震动;vt. 使…颤动;抖动;vi. 颤抖;振动
motive/‘məʊtɪv/n. (尤指隐藏的)动机,目的,原因;主题;vt. 使产生动机,激起;adj. 发动的;成为动机的
sufficient/sə’fɪʃ(ə)nt/adj. 充足的,足够的
presumably/prɪ’zjuːməblɪ/adv. 可能,也许,大概;推测起来;可假定
acknowledge/ək’nɒlɪdʒ/vt. 承认;(公开)答谢;报偿;告知已收到
enroll/ɪn’rəʊl/vt. 登记;使加入;把…记入名册;使入伍;vi. 参加;登记;注册;记入名册
bachelor/‘bætʃələ/n. 学士;单身汉;(尚未交配的)小雄兽
bachelor’s degree/n/学士学位
dilemma/dɪ’lemə; daɪ-/n. 困境;进退两难;两刀论法
accumulate/ə’kjuːmjʊleɪt/vt. 积攒;vi. 累积;积聚
ratio/‘reɪʃɪəʊ/n. 比率,比例
inflation/ɪn’fleɪʃ(ə)n/n. 膨胀;通货膨胀;夸张;自命不凡
accord/ə’kɔːd/n. 符合;一致;协议;自愿;vt. 使一致;给予(关照或其它待遇);vi. 符合;一致
likewise/‘laɪkwaɪz/adv. 同样地,照样地;也
curriculum/kə’rɪkjʊləm/n. (某个学校的)课程;总课程
prime/praɪm/n. 初期;青年;精华;全盛时期;vt. 使准备好;填装;vi. 作准;adj. 主要的;最好的;基本的;adv. 极好地
urban/‘ɜːb(ə)n/adj. 城市的;住在都市的;发生在城市的
agent/‘eɪdʒ(ə)nt/n. 代理人,代理商;药剂;特工;vt. 由…作中介;由…代理;adj. 代理的
carpenter/ˈkɑːpəntə(r)/n. 木匠,木工;vt. 制作;vi. 当木匠,做木匠工作
mechanic/mɪ’kænɪk/n. 技工,机修工;adj. 手工的
cable/‘keɪb(ə)l/n. 缆绳;电缆;海底电报;vt. 打电报;vi. 打海底电报
install/ɪnˈstɔ:l/vt. 安装,设置;任命;安顿
installer/ɪn’stɔ:lə/n. 安装程序;安装者,安装工
gloomy/‘gluːmɪ/adj. 黑暗的;沮丧的;阴郁的;悲观的
cynical/‘sɪnɪk(ə)l/adj. 愤世嫉俗的;冷嘲热讽的
breadth/bredθ; -t-/n. 宽度,广度;广泛性;幅度;宽宏
breed/briːd/n. [生物] 品种;种类,类型;vt. 繁殖;饲养;养育,教育;引起;vi. 繁殖;饲养;产生
sake/seɪk/n. 目的;利益;理由;日本米酒
literally/‘lɪt(ə)rəlɪ/adv. 照字面地;逐字地;不夸张地;正确地;真实地;简直
bother/‘bɒðə/n. 麻烦;烦恼;vt. 烦扰,打扰;使……不安;使……恼怒;vi. 操心,麻烦;烦恼
recruit/rɪ’kruːt/n. 招聘;新兵;新成员;vt. 补充;聘用;征募;使…恢复健康;vi. 复原;征募新兵;得到补充;恢复健康
orient/‘ɔːrɪənt; ‘ɒr-/n. 东方;东方诸国;vt. 重视,着重;使适应;确定方向,以…为目的;vi. 向东;adj. 东方的
oriented/‘ɔːrɪentɪd/adj. 导向的,定向的,以…为方向的;重视…的,着重…的
evaluate/ɪ’væljʊeɪt/vt. 评价;估价;求…的值;vi. 评价;估价
equation/ɪ’kweɪʒ(ə)n/n. 方程式,等式;相等;[化学] 反应式;(设计平衡的)影响因素,综合体
proposal/prə’pəʊz(ə)l/n. 求婚;(尤指某团体必须考虑的正式)计划;提议;建议;议案
investment/ɪn’ves(t)m(ə)nt/n. 投资;投入的资本;封锁

Phrases and expressions

  1. major in 主修(某一科目)
  2. in succession 连续发生地,接连发生地
  3. stand up for 支持,保卫,维护
  4. speculate about/on 猜测,推测
  5. capture one's imagination 引起某人的想象,吸引某人的注意
  6. in the form of 以…形式,以…方式
  7. a/the body of sth 大量的某物
  8. invest sb./sth. with sth. 赋予(某人或某物)以(某种性质)
  9. in a ... manner 以…方式,以…方法
  10. in favor of 支持,赞同
  11. prepare ... for ... 使…做好准备(应对未来)
  12. in the company of 和某人在一起
  13. be available to 可获得,可利用
  14. expose sb. to sth. 让某人接触到某事(物);让某人体验某事(物)
  15. describe sb./sth. as 把…说成;把…称为
  16. have sth. (much/little/nothing) to do with sb./sth. 与某人/某事物有关,与某人/某事物有联系
  17. for its own sake 只是为了…本身,没有别的原因
  18. (not) bother to do sth. (不想)费心,麻烦做某事

Articles

A

The humanities: Out of date?

人文学科:``过时了么?

Para.1

When the going gets tough, the tough take accounting. When the job market worsen, many students calculate they can’t major in English or history. They have to study something that boots their prospects of landing a job.

当形势变得困难时,强者会去选学会计。当就业市场恶化时,许多学生估算着他们不能再主修英语或历史。他们得学一些能改善他们就业前景的东西。

Para.2

The data show that as students have increasingly shouldered the ever-rising cost of tuition, they have defected from the study of the humanities and toward applied science and “hard” skills that they bet will lead to employment. In other words, a college education is more and more seen as a means for economic betterment rather than a means for human betterment. This is a trend that is likely to persist and even accelerate.

数据显示,随着学生肩负的学费不断增加,他们已从学习人文学科转向他们相信有益于将来就业的应用科学和“硬”技能。换言之,大学教育越来越被看成是改善经济而不是提升人类自身的手段。这种趋势可能会持续,甚至有加快之势。

Para.3

Over the next few years, as labor markets struggle, the humanities will probably continue their long slide in succession. There already has been a nearly 50 percent decline in the portion of liberal arts majors over the past generation, and it is logical to think that the trend is bound to continue or even accelerate. Once the dominant pillars of university life, the humanities now play little roles when students take their college tours. These days, labs are more vivid and compelling than libraries.

在未来几年内,由于劳动力市场的不景气,人文学科可能会继续其长期低迷的态势。在上一代大学生中,主修文科的学生数跌幅已近 50%。这种趋势会持续、甚至加速的想法是合情合理的。人文学科曾是大学生活的重要支柱,而今在学生们的大学游中却只是一个小点缀。现在,实验室要比图书馆更栩栩如生、受人青睐。

Para.4

Here, please allow me to stand up for and promote the true value that the humanities add to people’s lives. Since ancient times, people have speculated about the mystery of those inner forces that drive some people to greatness and others to self-destruction.This inner drive has been called many things over the centuries. The famous psychologist, Sigmund Freud, called it the “unconscious mind” or, more familiarly, “instinct”.

在这儿,请允许我为人文学科给人们的生活所增添的真实价值进行支持和宣传。自古以来,人们一直在思索人类自身具有什么神奇的内力使一些人变得崇高伟大,而使另一些人走向自我毁灭。几个世纪以来,这股内力被称作很多东西。著名的心理学家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德称之为“潜意识”,或更为人熟知的“本能”。

Para.5

From the beginning of time, this inner aspect of our being, this drive that can be constructive or destructive, has captured our imagination. The stories of this amazing struggle have formed the basis of cultures the world over. Historians, architects, authors, philosophers and artists have captured the words, images and meanings of this inner struggle in the form of story, music, myth, painting, architecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions. These men and women developed artistic “languages” that help us understand these aspirations and also educate generations. This fertile body of work from ancient times, the very foundation of civilization, forms the basis of study of the humanities.

从一开始,人类这股可以是建设性也可以是毁灭性的内在驱动力,就令我们心驰神往。这些惊人的、充满内心挣扎的故事形成了世界文化的基础。历史学家、建筑师、作家、哲学家和艺术家们以故事、音乐、神话、绘画、建筑、雕刻、风景画和传统的形式,捕捉到了这些撞击心灵的文字、形象及内涵。这些男男女女创造出了具有艺术性的“语言”,帮助我们了解人类的这些强烈愿望,并用以教育一代又一代人。从古时起开始的这些充满想象的大量作品,正是文明的底蕴,它奠定了人文研究的基础。

Para.6

Studying the humanities improves our ability to read and write. No matter what we do in life, we will have a huge advantage if we can read complex ideas and understand their meaning. We will have a bright career if we are the person in the office who can write a clear and elegant analysis of those ideas!

学习人文学科会提高我们的阅读和写作能力。无论我们这一生中从事什么职业,如果我们能读懂复杂的思想并理解它们的内涵,我们都会受益匪浅。如果我们是在办公室里能对这些思想写出既明确又简洁的分析的人,我们会有光明的职业前景。

Para.7

Studying the humanities makes us familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process. In an information economy, many people have the ability to produce a useful product such as a new MP3 player. Yet, very few people have the ability to create a spectacular brand: the iPod. Most importantly, studying the humanities invests us with great insight and self-awareness, thereby releasing our creative energy and talent in a positive and constructive manner.

学习人文学科会让我们熟悉表达情感的语言及进行创造的过程。在信息经济中,很多人都有能力创造出一个如新的 MP3 播放器那样的有用产品。然而,仅有很少的人具有能力创造出一个如 iPod 那样的精彩品牌。最重要的是,学习人文学科使我们具有伟大的洞察力和自我意识,从而以积极和建设性的方式来发挥我们的创造力和才艺。

Para.8

Perhaps the best argument in favor of the humanities is the scope of possibilities that are widely open to us. Did you know that James Cameron, world-famous director of the movie, Titanic, graduated with a degree in the humanities? So did Sally Ride, the first woman in space. So did actors Bruce Lee, Gwyneth Paltrow, Renee Zellweger and Matt Damon. Dr. Harold Varmus, who won a Nobel Prize for Medicine, studied the humanities. Even Michael Eisner, Chairman of the Disney Company, majored in the humanities.Famous people who studied the humanities make a long list indeed. It’s easy to see that the humanities can prepare us for many different careers and jobs we can undertake, whether medicine, business, science or entertainment. If we study only mathematics, it’s likely we will be a candidate only for jobs as a mathematician. If we include studying the humanities, we can make breakthroughs on many barriers and are limited only by our effort and imagination.

也许,支持人文学科的最好论点是,人文学科为我们提供了广阔的机会。你知道世界闻名的电影《泰坦尼克号》的导演詹姆斯·卡梅隆拿的是人文学科的学位吗?第一个登上太空的女宇航员萨利·赖德拿的也是人文学科的学位。还有电影演员李小龙、格温妮丝·帕特洛、蕾妮·齐薇格及马特·达蒙,也都如此。获诺贝尔医学奖的哈罗德·瓦慕斯博士也学过人文学科。甚至迪士尼公司的总裁迈克尔·艾斯纳也主修人文学科。学习人文学科的有名人士确实可以列出一长串。显而易见,人文学能为我们从事许多不同的职业做准备,不管是医学、商务、科学或娱乐。如果我们仅学习数学,我们很可能只能申请数学家之类的工作。如果我们还学了人文学科,那我们就能突破许多障碍,只要我们愿意付出努力,敢于想象。

Para.9

Of course, nowadays, if we study the humanities alone, we are liable to miss many opportunities. Each one of us needs to become as technically and professionally skilled as possible to help meet the needs of modern life. In fact, increasingly a pairing of technical knowledge and inner insight is seen as the ideal in the establishment of a career. If I were the Dean of Admissions at a medical school and two people applied to our school, both having the required basic scientific courses, one a philosophy major and the other solely a pre-med student, the philosophy applicant would be chosen.

当然,在当下,如果我们单学人文学科,可能会失去很多机会。我们每个人都需要尽可能变得技能化、职业化,以满足现代生活的需要。事实上,技术知识和内在洞察力的结合越来越被看成是建立职业生涯的理想搭配。如果我是某个医学院的招生部主任,有两个人同时申请我们学校,这两个人都学过基础的科学课程,一个主修哲学,另一个仅是医学院的预科生,我会选择那位哲学专业的申请者。

Para.10

In summary, the humanities help to create well-rounded human beings with insight and understanding of the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity. The humanities, the ancient timeless reservoir of knowledge, teach us to see things differently and broaden our horizons. They are as useful and relevant in our modern age as they have always been. Doesn’t it make sense to spend some time in the company of the humanities, our outstanding and remarkable treasure of knowledge? Who knows how famous YOU might become!

总之,人文学科帮助造就全面发展的人,这些人具有洞察力,并理解全人类共有的激情、希望和理想。人文学科,这个古老、永恒的知识储蓄库,教我们如何以不同的方式看待事物,同时也拓宽我们的视野。在现代社会中,人文学科一如既往地同生活息息相关,也发挥着重要作用。我们在学习中花一些时间与人文学科——我们杰出、非凡的知识宝藏——相伴,这难道不是明智的吗?谁知道你将来会变得多有名气呢!

B

What college brings us?

大学带给我们什么?

图片

Para.1

The case for college has been accepted without question for more than a generation. There has been a general consensus that all high school graduates ought to go to college because college will help them get a job, earn more money, become “better” people, and learn to be more responsible citizens than those who don’t go. However, given the huge cost of attending a university and the shrinking job market, should we not re-examine the case for college?

受大学教育已毫无疑问被不只一代人接受了。普遍的共识是所有的高中毕业生都应该上大学,因为大学会帮他们找到工作,挣更多钱,成为“更好的”人,并学会如何做一个比那些不上大学的人更负责的公民。可是,看看上大学的昂贵费用和日益萎缩的就业市场,难道我们不应该重新审视一下是否应该上大学这个问题吗?

Para.2

The reality is that college has never been magical for everyone. Now that close to half our high school graduates are attending college, those who don’t fit the pattern are becoming more numerous. Excess college graduates are selling shoes and driving taxis.

现实情况是大学并不是对每个人都有神奇的作用。由于近一半的高中毕业生都上了大学,那些不适合大学模式的人也变得更多了。过多的大学毕业生在卖鞋和开出租车。

Para.3

Some adventuresome educators and campus watchers have openly begun to suggest that we revise our attitudes and reform the system. College may not be the best, the proper or even realistic place for every young person after the completion of high school. Critics suggest we may have been looking at all those surveys and statistics upside down through the rosy glow of our own remembered college experiences.

一些富有探索精神的教育家和校园观察者已开始公开建议我们改变看法,改革大学体系。他们觉得大学并不是对每个完成高中学业的年轻人来说都是最好的、适宜的、甚至现实的地方。批评家暗示,我们可能是凭借自己记忆中那段大学经历的玫瑰色光环,把所有的调查和统计都看颠倒了。

Para.4

Many students confirm that they feel compelled to go to college because of pressure from parents and teachers and stay there because it seems to be an alternative to a far worse fate. They quiver at the thought of the army or a dead-end job, and almost anything is better than staying at home. Potential college graduates say that they don’t want to work “solely for the money” and that they want to do work that matters. Their motive is to help people and save the world, but the numbers are stacked against them. Not only are there not sufficient jobs in the world-saving fields, but in the current slowdown it has become evident that there never are enough promising jobs, presumably never will be, that require a higher education.

很多学生都证实:他们觉得不得不上大学是因为来自父母和老师的压力,呆在大学也是因为这似乎是能逃避更糟的命运的唯一选择。他们想到参军或做没前途的工作就不寒而栗,又觉得做任何事都比呆在家强。有潜力的大学毕业生说他们不想“只为赚钱”而工作,他们想做有意义的工作。他们的动机是帮助别人,拯救世界,但形势并不乐观。不但在那些拯救世界的领域里没有足够的工作,而且很显然在当今经济衰退的情况下,那些要求有高等学历的有前途的工作从来就不够,可能永远都不会够。

Para.5

Let’s acknowledge the facts. The New York Times reports close to 80 percent of new jobs can be performed by someone without a college degree. The US Department of Education estimates that only 62 percent of those enrolled in four-year institutions had earned a bachelor’s degree six years later! This dilemma means that 38 percent have likely wasted time and accumulated debt! In addition, in the US, the cost of college has risen tenfold over the last 30 years, a ratio that is three times as much as general inflation over the same time period. It is clear, from an objective point of view, that many more students should be attending technical schools or two-year colleges to prepare for the jobs that will actually be available to them.

让我们来承认这些事实。《纽约时报》报道近八成的新工作可以由那些没有大学学历的人来做。美国教育部估计在四年制大学的学生中只有 62%的人六年以后能拿到学士学位。这种窘境意味着 38%的学生都浪费了时间,积累了债务。另外,美国的大学费用在过去的三十年内涨了十倍,这个比例是同期通货膨胀的三倍。从客观上来说已很清楚,更多的学生应该上技校或两年制学院,为他们能找到的工作做准备。

Para.6

Of course, for many jobs a higher education is absolutely necessary and required. So, for some people, obtaining a bachelor’s degree is but the first step of lifelong learning. For them, a university degree is essential.

当然,对许多工作而言,高等教育学历是不可或缺的。所以,对一些人来说,拿到学士学位只是终生学习的第一步。对他们而言,大学学位是必不可少的。

Para.7

There is little doubt that attending college has the potential of exposing young people to new ideas and relationships and helps promote their critical thinking skills. It also accords them a relatively safe environment for experimentation and exploration. Nevertheless, many college graduates report that what they learned on campus was better described as personal rather than academic development. Likewise, they report that the real value of college has more to do with developing their identity and practicing social skills than anything to do with the college curriculum. If you accept that the prime reason for going to college is to provide a period for pure learning and maturation of a young person, the decision is made easy as it becomes a question of affordability for the individual student.

毫无疑问,上大学能让年轻人接触新思想,建立新关系,且有助于提高他们的批判性思维能力。大学还为他们提供了一个相对安全的环境让他们从事实验和探索。 然而,很多大学毕业生反映,他们在校园所学的东西,与其被称为学术发展,不如说是个人的发展。同样地,他们说大学的真实价值与发展他们的个人特质及社会技能更密切相关,而并非与课程有关。如果你认同这一看法,同意上大学的首要原因是为了给年轻人提供一段纯粹的学习和成长成熟的时间,那么做这个决定会很容易,因为是否上大学仅决定于个人是否有能力承担大学的费用。、

Para.8

Whatever college graduates want to do, most of them are going to have to adjust. During the upcoming years, according to the US Department of Labor, the biggest demand will be for jobs that do not need a university degree. Those students who have gone to college to become urban planners, editors, and college professors will have a hard time to find jobs related to what they have learned. They may well find that the only jobs available are sales agents, carpenters, mechanics or cable installers. In fact, having a university degree may be a barrier to getting these jobs. On the other hand, students who have graduated in specialized fields often find that they have learned a lot of things in classrooms that they will never use. One gloomy architecture student, who had already designed and built houses, said, “I don’t want to appear cynical. It’s more the degree you need, not the breadth of knowledge you learn getting it.”

无论大学毕业生想从事什么工作,大多数人都不得不进行调整。据美国劳工部报告称,在未来几年里,劳动力市场最大的工作需求并不要求大学学位。对于那些上大学是为今后成为城市规划者、编辑和大学教授的学生来说,会很难找到与他们所学相关的工作。他们可能发现唯一有空缺的工作是销售代理、木工、机械师或电缆安装工。事实上,有大学学位可能会成为找这些工作的绊脚石。在另一方面,从专门领域毕业的学生常发现他们在课堂上学到的很多东西永远也用不上。一位已从事过设计和造房的建筑专业的学生沮丧地说:“我不想显得愤世嫉俗。但人们更看重的是你的学位,而不是你在拿学位过程中所学的渊博知识。”

Para.9

College is an outstanding place for that rare breed, those young adults who love learning for its own sake, who would literally rather read than bother to eat, and who like nothing better than writing research papers. But they are a minority, even at the famous colleges which attract and recruit the intellectually oriented.

大学对那些凤毛麟角、为学习而学习的年轻人来说是一个重要的地方。真的,他们甚至宁可读书,也不愿费心去吃东西,他们最喜欢做的莫过于撰写科研论文。但他们毕竟是少数,即使在那些吸引和招收注重学术研究人才的著名学府也是如此。

Para.10

In brief, our high school graduates need to evaluate the college equation more closely and critically, calculate it as a consumer product, and decide if the value proposal is worth the very large investment each student and family must make.

简言之,高中毕业生需要更仔细审慎地评估上大学的综合因素,要把上大学作为一个消费品来核算,然后决定上大学这个价值主张是不是值得每个学生及家庭进行大手笔投资。

Unit 3

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
odyssey/‘ɑdəsi/n. 奥德赛(相传由古希腊盲诗人Homer创作的史诗,主角是在特洛伊战争中献木马计使希腊获胜的Odysseus[əu’disju:s]);漫长的历险旅程;对人生有教益的一连串经历,艰难历程
phase/feɪz/n. 时期,阶段;(月亮的)盈亏,月相
label/‘leɪb(ə)l/n. 标签;商标;签条;vt. 标注;贴标签于
parallel/‘pærəlel/n. 平行线;对比;vt. 与…相当或相似;使…与…平行;adj. 平行的;类似的,相同的
adolescence/ædə’les(ə)ns/n. 青春期
peculiar/pɪ’kjuːlɪə/n. 特权;特有财产;adj. 奇怪的,异常的;adj. 特殊的;独特的,为某人/某地/某事物所特有的;奇怪的;罕见的
acquaint/ə’kweɪnt/vt. 介绍,使认识,使了解,使熟悉
previous/‘priːvɪəs/adj. 以前的;早先的;过早的;adv. 在先;在…以前
induction/ɪn’dʌkʃ(ə)n/n. [电磁] 感应;归纳法;感应现象;入门培训,入职仪式,就职;诱导
sensible/‘sensɪb(ə)l/n. 可感觉到的东西; 敏感的人;adj. 明智的;通情达理的;合乎情理的,切合实际的,明智的;意识到的,能感觉到的
equivalent/ɪ’kwɪv(ə)l(ə)nt/n. 等价物,相等物;adj. 等价的,相等的;同意义的
so-called/,səʊ’kɔ:ld/adj. 如此称号的,号称的
radical/‘rædɪk(ə)l/n. 基础;激进分子;[物化] 原子团;[数] 根数;adj. 激进的;前卫的;(改变或方式)彻底的;根本的
agenda/ə’dʒendə/n. 议程;日常工作事项;日程表
quit/kwɪt/n. 离开;[计] 退出;vt. 离开(工作岗位、学校等);放弃;停止;使…解除;vi. 离开;离校;离任,辞职;停止;adj. 摆脱了…的;已经了结的
shift/ʃɪft/n. 移动;变化;手段;轮班;vt. 转移(地点或位置);改变;替换;vi. 移动;转变;转换
prior/‘praɪə/n. 小修道院院长;大修道院的副院长; (隐修院)会长; 犯罪前;adj. 优先的;在先的,在前的,先前的,之前的,事先的
frame/freɪm/n. 框架;结构;[电影] 画面;vt. 设计;建造;陷害;使…适合;(小心措辞以)表达 ;vi. 有成功希望;adj. 有木架的;有构架的
spouse/spaʊz; -s/n. 配偶;vt. 和…结婚
stability/stə’bɪlɪtɪ/n. 稳固,稳定;稳定性;坚定,恒心
static/‘stætɪk/n. 静电;静电干扰;adj. 静态的,不动的,不变化的,不发展的,静(止)的;静电的;静力的
proportion/prə’pɔːʃ(ə)n/n. 比例,占比;部分,份额;面积;均衡;vt. 使成比例;使均衡;分摊
saddle/‘sæd(ə)l/n. 鞍,鞍状物;车座;拖具;vt. 承受;使负担;装以马鞍;vi. 跨上马鞍
heir/eə/n. [法] 继承人;后嗣;嗣子
rebel/‘reb(ə)l/n. 造反者,反叛者;叛徒;vi. 反叛;反抗(权威或常规);造反;adj. 反抗的;造反的
rebellious/rɪ’beljəs/adj. 叛逆的,反叛的;反抗的,造反的;难控制的
resent/rɪ’zent/vt. 怨恨;愤恨;厌恶;对…感到愤恨(不满)
fluid/‘fluːɪd/n. 流体;液体;adj. 流动的;流畅的;不固定的,易变的
resort/rɪ’zɔːt/n. 凭借,手段;度假胜地;常去之地;vi. 求助,诉诸;常去;采取某手段或方法
distract/dɪ’strækt/vt. 分散,转移(注意力)
allowance/ə’laʊəns/n. 津贴,零用钱;允许;限额;体谅,原谅; vt. 定量供应
transition/træn’zɪʃ(ə)n; trɑːn-; -‘sɪʃ-/n. 过渡;转变,变迁;[分子生物] 转换;变调
predict/prɪ’dɪkt/vt. 预报,预言;预知;vi. 作出预言;作预料,作预报
guideline/‘gaɪdlaɪn/n. 指导方针,指导原则,参考
version/‘vɜːʃ(ə)n/n. 版本,改编形式;(根据个人的观点对事件的)描述,说法;译文;倒转术
status/‘steɪtəs/n. 重要身份,社会地位(尤指与他人相比);状态;情形
stable/‘steɪb(ə)l/n. 马厩;牛棚;vt. 赶入马房;vi. 被关在马厩;adj. 稳定的,不变的;牢固的;坚定的
boom/buːm/n. 繁荣;吊杆;隆隆声;vt. 使兴旺;发隆隆声;vi. (国家、地区或行业)繁荣,急速发展;发隆隆声
apart/ə’pɑːt/adj. 分离的,隔离的;与众不同的;adv. 相距,(空间、时间方面)成距离;与众不同地;分离着
implicit/ɪm’plɪsɪt/adj. 含蓄的,隐含其中的,不明言的;暗示的;盲从的
considering/kən’sɪd(ə)rɪŋ/prep. 鉴于,考虑到;conj. 就…而言
contemporary/kən’temp(ə)r(ər)ɪ/n. 同时代的人;同时期的东西;adj. 当代的;同时代的;属于同一时期的
witness/ˈwɪtnɪs/n. 证人;目击者;证据;vt. 目击,亲眼看见(尤指罪行或事故发生);是发生(某事件)的时间或地点;证明;为…作证;vi. 作证人
deceive/dɪ’siːv/vt. 欺骗,行骗
outset/‘aʊtset/n. 开始,开端;从开头时,从一开始
résumé/‘rezjuːmeɪ/n. [法语]个人简历
up-to-date/,ʌp tə ‘deɪt/adj. 最新的,最近的,包含最新信息的;现代的,新式的
reinforce/riːɪn’fɔːs/n. 加强;加固物;加固材料;vt. 加强,加固;强化(观点、思想或感觉);补充;vi. 求援;得到增援;给予更多的支持
exile/‘eksaɪl; ‘egz-/n. 流放,充军,流亡(通常指因政治原因);放逐,被放逐者;流犯;vt. 放逐,流放;使背井离乡,(尤指因政治原因而)迫使(某人)流亡国外
hesitate/‘hezɪteɪt/vt. 踌躇,犹豫;有疑虑,不愿意;vi. 踌躇,犹豫;不愿
feasible/‘fiːzɪb(ə)l/adj. 可行的;可能的;可实行的
code/kəʊd/n. 代码,代号,密码;编码;法典,准则,规范,行为规则;vt. 编码;制成法典;vi. 指定遗传密码
hollow/‘hɒləʊ/n. 洞;山谷;窟窿;vt. 使成为空洞;vi. 形成空洞;adj. 空的;中空的,空腹的;凹的;虚伪的,无意义的,虚有其表的;adv. 彻底地;无用地
miserable/‘mɪz(ə)rəb(ə)l/adj. 悲惨的;苦恼的,痛苦的,难受的;卑鄙的
volcano/vɒl’keɪnəʊ/n. 火山
erupt/ɪ’rʌpt/vt. 爆发;喷出;vi. (火山)爆发;喷出;(搏斗、暴力事件、噪音等)突然发生;发疹;长牙
snap/snæp/n. 猛咬;劈啪声;突然折断;vt. 突然折断,拉断;猛咬;啪地关上;vi. 咬; 突然发怒,突然崩溃;厉声说;咯嗒一声关上;adj. 突然的
series/‘sɪəriːz; -rɪz/n. 系列,连续,连续发生的一组类似事件;[电] 串联;级数;丛书
manual/‘mænjʊ(ə)l/n. 手册,指南;adj. 手工的;体力的
banquet/‘bæŋkwɪt/n. 宴会,盛宴;宴请,款待;vt. 宴请,设宴款待;vi. 参加宴会
maintenance/ˈmeɪntənəns/n. 维护,(建筑物、机器或设备的)维修,养护,保养;保持;生活费用
dairy/deərɪ /n. 奶制品;乳牛;制酪场;牛奶场,乳品厂,乳品店;牛奶及乳品业;adj. 乳品的;牛奶的;牛奶制的;产乳的
deck/dek/n. 甲板;行李仓;露天平台;vt. 装饰;装甲板;打扮
commercial/kə’mɜːʃ(ə)l/adj. 商业的,商务的;营利的;靠广告收入的;n. 商业广告
affirm/ə’fɜːm/vt. 肯定;断言; 确认,证实,断言…属实;vi. 确认;断言
refine/rɪ’faɪn/vt. 净化,提炼,精炼,提纯;(逐渐地、微小地)改进,完善,改善;使…文雅
refined/rɪ’faɪnd/adj. 优雅的,有教养的;精炼的,精制的;精确的
coarse/kɔːs/adj. 粗俗的,粗鲁的;下等的;粗糙的,粗的
organic/ɔː’gænɪk/adj. 不使用化肥(农药)生产的,有机的,绿色的;有机的,组织的,器官的;根本的
demonstrate/‘demənstreɪt/vt. 说明,证明,证实,争论;vi. 示威
porch/pɔːtʃ/n. (房屋前后的)游廊,走廊
resign/rɪ’zaɪn/n. 辞去职务;vt. 辞职;放弃;委托;使听从,使自己顺从于(做某事),安于(无法改变的不愉快状况);vi. 辞职
overnight/əʊvə’naɪt/n. 头天晚上;一夜的逗留;vt. 连夜快递;vi. 过一夜;adj. 晚上的;通宵的;前夜的;adv. 通宵;突然;昨晚;夜里,在夜里
restless/ˈrestləs/adj. 焦躁不安的,不耐烦的;不安宁的;得不到满足的
rouse/raʊz/n. 觉醒;奋起;vt. 唤醒;激起,使振奋(尤指对方很疲倦或不愿意做某事时);唤醒;惊起;vi. 醒来;奋起
deputy/‘depjʊtɪ/n. 代理人,代表;副手,副职;(美国)县治安官助力;adj. 副的;代理的
somehow/‘sʌmhaʊ/adv. 由于某种不明原因,不知为什么;以某种方法;莫名其妙地
integrity/ɪn’tegrɪtɪ/n. 完整;耿直;正直;诚实;廉正
cargo/‘kɑːgəʊ/n.(船、飞机或卡车装载的)货物,船货
trail/treɪl/n. 小径;痕迹;尾部;踪迹;一串,一系列;vt. 追踪;拖;蔓延;落后于;vi. 飘出;蔓生;垂下;拖曳
trailer/‘treɪlə/n. 拖车,挂车;[电视] 预告片;追踪者;vt. 用拖车载运;vi. 乘拖车式活动房屋旅行
air-conditioning/,ɛrkən’dɪʃənɪŋ/n. 空调系统,空气调节
somewhat/‘sʌmwɒt/n. 几分;某物;adv. 有点;多少;有几分;稍微
soak/səʊk/n. 浸;湿透;大雨;酒鬼;vt. 吸收,吸入;沉浸在(工作或学习中);使……上下湿透;vi. 浸泡;渗透
drift/drɪft/n. 漂流,漂移;趋势;漂流物;vt. 使…漂流;使…受风吹积;vi. 漂流,漂移;漂泊
refresh/rɪ’freʃ/vt. 更新;使……恢复;使……清新;消除……的疲劳;vi. 恢复精神;喝饮料,吃点心;补充给养
refreshed/‘ri’freʃt/adj. 精神振作的,精力恢复的
alert/ə’lɜːt/n. 警戒,警惕;警报;vt. 警告;使警觉,使意识到;adj. 警惕的,警觉的;留心的
torture/‘tɔːtʃə/n. 折磨;拷问;歪曲;煎熬;vt. (身心所受的)折磨;拷问,对…施酷刑逼供;歪曲
surrender/sə’rendə/n. 投降;放弃;交出;屈服;vt. 使投降;放弃;交出;听任;vi. 投降;屈服;自首
fairy/‘feərɪ/n. 仙女,小精灵;漂亮姑娘;adj. 虚构的;仙女的
fairy tale/ n/童话,神话,神仙故事;谎言
cane/keɪn/n. 手杖;(用来制作家具、篮子的)藤条;细长的茎; vt. 以杖击;以藤编制
statue/ˈstætʃu:/n. 雕像,塑像;vt. 以雕像装饰

Phrases and expressions

  1. acquaint oneself with sth. 使自己了解某事,使自己知悉某事
  2. prior to sth. 在某事之前,先于某事
  3. base upon/on 以…为基础,以…为根据
  4. saddle sb. with sth. 使某人承担
  5. keep a distance from 保持距离
  6. run away from (尤指)秘密地逃跑,出逃
  7. get away from 摆脱(困难或不愉快的事,或某种限制)
  8. distract sb. from sth. 分散(某人的)注意力,(使)某人分心
  9. give away to 被…取代
  10. apart from 除…之外,此外
  11. have an effect on 对…产生作用
  12. deceive sb. into doing sth. 欺骗某人做某事
  13. back off 放弃,退出
  14. wonder at 对…感到惊讶
  15. fall into (尤指突然)陷入(某种心境)
  16. be tired of 对(做)某事感到厌烦
  17. be strict with sb. 对(某人)严格,对(某人)严厉
  18. not amount to much/anything/a great deal 不太重要,没什么了不起
  19. bond with sb. (与某人)培养一种亲密的或紧密的关系
  20. drift off 慢慢入睡
  21. can't bear to do sth. 接受不了做某事
  22. surrender oneself to sth. 听任某事摆布,屈服于某事

Articles

A

Journey through the odyssey years

图片

Para.1

Most of us know about the phases of life which we label to parallel different age groups and life stages: childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and old age. We think of infancy before childhood and middle age before old age, with each unique phase bringing its own peculiar set of challenges. These challenges can be overcome by acquainting ourselves with them, such as the child’s need to learn, the adult’s need to find the right career and build a family, and the senior’s need for support and good health care.

​ 我们大多数人都知道,根据不同的年龄和生活阶段,人生可与此平行划分为童年、青春期、成年和老年这四个阶段。我们把这些阶段想象为婴儿期在童年之前,中年在老年之前,每个阶段都会面临一系列特有的挑战,如孩子对学习的需要,成人对找到合适的职业生涯和建立一个家庭的需要,以及年长者对得到帮助和良好医疗保健的需要。通过对它们的充分了解,我们就可以战胜这些挑战。

Para.2

Interestingly, ideas about the stages of life are changing.

​ 有趣的是,关于人生阶段的观念正在发生变化。

Para.3

In previous times, people didn’t have a solid idea of childhood as being separate from adulthood. A hundred years ago, no one thought of adolescence. Until recently it was understood as a norm that their induction to adulthood was completed as soon as they graduated from college. They would now find a sensible job which would lead to a career. Then during this career they would start a family, ideally before they turned 30.

​ 在先前的年代,人们并没有一种固有的把童年和成年分开的想法。一百年前,谁也没有想到过青春期。直到最近,人们还很自然地认为:只要他们一从大学毕业,他们的成人入门阶段就结束了。他们就会找到一份把他们引入职业生涯的合适的工作。然后在此职业生涯期间,他们会成家,三十岁之前成家更为理想。

Para.4

Today we have an equivalent need to recognize a new phase of life that comes after high school graduation, continues through college, and then leads to starting a family and having a career, the so-called odyssey years. Recent trends show radical changes as young people are following a different agenda. They take breaks from school, live with friends and often return to living with their parents. Similarly, they fall in and out of love, quit one job and try another or even shift to a new career. So, we need to recognize this new stage, the odyssey years, which many now consider to be an unavoidable stage in reaching adulthood.

​ 今天,我们同样需要认识一个新的人生阶段:从高中毕业到上大学,然后到成家立业,即所谓的奥德赛岁月。由于年轻人正按照一种不同的模式生活,最近的趋势出现了根本性的变化。他们从学校休学,与朋友同住,也常回去与父母同住。同样,他们恋爱又失恋,辞掉一份工作又去寻找新的,甚至改行。因此,我们需要认识这个新阶段——奥德赛岁月。现在许多人认为这是步入成年之前的一个难以回避的阶段。

Para.5

People who were born prior to the 60s or 70s in the last century tended to frame their concept of adulthood based upon achieving certain accomplishments: moving away from home, becoming financially independent, finding the right spouse and starting a family. But that emphasis on stability did not remain static. Today, young people are unlikely to do the same. During the odyssey years, a high proportion of young people are delaying marriage, child bearing, and even employment.

​ 出生于上个世纪 60 年代或 70 年代之前的人们往往会将成年的概念基于是否取得了某些成就:从父母家搬走,经济上独立,找到合适的配偶并组织家庭。但是,对稳定的强调并没能保持不变。今天,年轻人不太可能仿效他们的父母。在奥德赛岁月中,相当比例的年轻人都推迟结婚、生子,甚至推迟就业。

Para.6

The odyssey years can saddle young people with enormous pressure to move forward quickly. As the sole heir and focus of their parents’ expectations, hopes and dreams, some react with rebellious and prideful attitudes and behavior toward their parents. They often resent the pressure they’re feeling and keep a distance from their parents or even run away from home. Their confusion comes from the difficulties to make parents understand them and the fluid journey of discovery they need in this phase of their lives. To get away from this confusion and upset, many young people resort to computer games, iPods, iPhones, or iPads to help distract them from their pain and stress.

​ 奥德赛岁月使年轻人承受了巨大的压力,迫使他们快速往前冲。作为他们父母唯一的继承人和所有期望、希望和梦想的聚焦,有些年轻人以叛逆和桀骜不驯的行为和态度对待父母。他们往往憎恨他们所感到的压力,并同他们的父母保持距离,甚至离家出走。他们的困惑源于很难让家长了解他们,也源于这段需要进行自我探索的、不确定的人生之旅。为了逃避困惑和不安,许多年轻人诉诸电脑游戏, iPod, iPhone 或 iPad,以帮助分散他们的痛苦和压力。

Para.7

Likewise, their parents are feeling more anxious. They may make allowances for a transition phase from student life to adult life, but they get upset when they see the transition of their grown children’s lives moving away from their expectations and stretching five years to seven years, and beyond. The parents don’t even detect a clear sense of direction in their children’s lives. They look at them and see the things that are being delayed.

​ 同样,他们的父母更是着急。虽然他们理解从学生到成年需要一个过渡阶段,但看到他们已成年子女的过渡阶段的生活与他们的期望渐行渐远,过渡阶段延至五年,七年,甚至更长时,他们感到生气。父母甚至不能清楚地觉察到他们孩子未来生活的方向,只能看着他们,看着要做的事被拖延着。

Para.8

It’s hard to predict what’s next. New guidelines haven’t been established yet, and everything seems to give way to a less permanent version of itself. There’s been a shift in the status and balance of power between the genders, too. More women are getting degrees than men. Male wages have remained stable over the past decades, while female wages have boomed.

​ 接下来会如何发展很难预测。新的准则还没有建立,一切似乎都被一个不确定的版本所取代。两性之间地位和权力的平衡也有了转变。取得学位的女性比男性更多。男性的工资在过去的几十年里一直停滞不前,而女性的工资却出现激增。

Para.9

Apart from anything else, this has had an implicit effect on courtship. Educated women can get many of the things they want, such as security, accomplishment, and identity without marriage. However, both genders are having a harder time finding suitable mates to build their lives with. Considering all of this, it’s beneficial to know that even though graduates are delaying many things after college, surveys show they still hold highly traditional aspirations. For example, this contemporary generation rates parenthood even more highly than previous generations did!

​ 别的不说,这对择偶产生了不言而喻的影响。即使未婚,受过教育的妇女仍可以得到很多她们想要的东西,如安全感,成就感,和认同感。不过,不论男女都更难找到合适的伴侣来一同建立他们的生活。在讨论这一切时,有助于让大家知道,即使毕业生离开大学后推迟了做很多事,调查结果显示,他们仍持有很传统的愿望。例如,当今的一代比以前的几代对如何扮演好父母的角色有着更高的要求。

Para.10

This new phase will likely grow more pronounced in the coming years. Nations around the world have witnessed similar trends toward delaying marriage and spending more years than ever shifting between higher education and settling down with a career and family.

​ 这一新阶段在未来几年可能更明显。世界各国都目睹了相似的趋势,人们推迟结婚,花更多年的时间徘徊在接受高等教育和建立职业生涯及家庭之间。

Para.11

Nevertheless, graduates shouldn’t be deceived into thinking they can back off simply because things have become more difficult. A large number of people chasing relatively fewer opportunities can create strong competitive pressure. So, from the outset, keep your resume professional and up-to-date.

​ 然而,毕业生不应误认为因情况已变得更困难,他们就可以放弃。大批的人努力角逐相对较少的机会,这会导致强大的竞争压力。所以,从一开始你就要将个人简历写得很专业,并做到随时更新。

Para.12

To reinforce this essential message, success moving through the odyssey years will come to those who don’t expect to achieve their goals right away but know that they must have the strength, capacity and confidence to endure over the long term. If you’re a little late with your goals, don’t feel like a failure! Stay strong, be positive, and keep focused! Someday you will look back and wonder at the vast changes as you passed through the odyssey years.

​ 要强化这一重要信息:顺利度过奥德赛岁月的将是那些不急于即刻实现目标的人——但这些人知道他们必须保持实力、能力、信心去度过这段较长的岁月。如果你的目标起步稍晚了点,不要认为自己是个失败者!意志坚定,态度积极,并集中精力!有一天,你会回头审视,并对奥德赛岁月给你带来的巨大改变感到惊叹。

B

`\Finding my way back home``

图片

Para.1

Dear Dad,” I wrote, “I want to come home from my exile.” After many hours of thinking as I sat by the side of a busy highway, I tore the page in half and crushed it into a small ball. I’d started this letter many times but would always fall into despair. I wanted to go home - home to my parents and sisters, but I would always hesitate …I didn’t know if it was feasible.

​ “亲爱的爸爸”我写道,“我想结束我的流放,回家!”我坐在一条繁忙的高速公路旁想了很久,还是把纸撕成了两半,并捏成了一个小球。这封信我已写了好多次开头,但每次都以绝望而告终。我想回家——回到有我父母和姐妹的家,但我总是犹豫不决……不知回家之路是否行得通。

Para.2

I had run away from home after finishing high school. My parents had insisted I go to college; our family code demanded it but I was tired of school. I hated it. I was determined not to go. And, besides, my father was too strict with me. The allowance he gave me was pitiful. I had multiple jobs to do around the farm. I hated the work, finding it hollow and dull! I was miserable.

​ 高中毕业后我离家出走了。因为父母坚持要我去上大学,我家的家规要求我这么做,但我厌倦了学校。我憎恨学校,坚决不肯上大学。再说,父亲对我太严厉,给我的零花钱少得可怜。在农场我还得干各种各样的活。我讨厌这样的工作,发现它既没意思又单调乏味!我很痛苦。

图片

Para.3

There had been a fight between my father and me. Like a volcano erupting, I snapped. I threw some things into a bag and left angrily. My father shouted after me, “If you leave, don’t come back!” My mother cried and I have seen her grief and tears a hundred times during sleepless nights.

​ 我和父亲之间曾有过一次激烈的争吵。我突然发怒,犹如火山爆发。我把一些东西塞入一个袋子后,愤然离开了。我父亲在我背后高喊:“要走,就不要回来!”母亲哭了,多少次不眠之夜,我都看到了她的悲痛和泪水。

Para.4

The letter had to be written.

​ 但这封信还得写。

Para.5

图片

图片

Para.6

Overnight, I tried to sleep on the grass by the road, but sleep did not come. I wondered what my little sisters were doing and what wonderful food my mother was cooking.

​ 整整一个晚上,我想要在路边的草地上入睡,但就是睡不着。我想啊想,想小妹妹们在做什么,想我妈妈又在做什么美味佳肴。

Para.7

I couldn’t bear my restless thoughts any longer. I roused myself and started down the long road home. But was it still my home?

​ 我再也不能忍受那些焦虑不安的思念了。我振作起来,踏上了回家的漫漫之路。但它仍然是我的家吗?

图片

Para.8

A police car stopped and the deputy offered me a ride. It was good to have someone to talk with. “Where’re you going, son?” he asked. Somehow, he reminded me of my own father.

​ 一辆警车停了下来,车上的那位巡警让我搭了一程。有人说话的感觉真好。他问:“去哪儿,孩子?”不知为什么,他让我不禁地想起了父亲。

Para.9

A long silence “Home,” I said.

​ 沉默好一阵之后,我说:“回家。”

Para.10

“Where have you been?”

​ “你去哪儿了?”

Para.11

He seemed truly interested. There was real integrity in his face.

​ 他好像真的很感兴趣,脸上写满了真诚。

Para.12

“All over, I said.

​ “四处走了走。”我说。

Para.13

“Been away from home long?”

​ “离家很久了吧?”

Para.14

“A year, one month and two days.” I said.

​ “一年一个月零两天。”我说。

Para.15

He didn’t look at me, but he smiled, and I knew he understood.

​ 他没有看我,但他微笑着,我知道他懂。

Para.16

“You’re a fine boy,” he said.

​ “你是一个好孩子,”他说。

Para.17

Then he told me about his own two sons, “My older son ran away from home two years ago - two years and 15 days.” He looked away and then said, “I hope someday somebody will be nice to him, too.”

​ 然后他告诉我他自己的两个儿子的情况。“我的大儿子两年前离家出走,已经两年零十五天了。”他扭过头去,然后又说:“我希望有一天也有人会待他好。”

Para.18

Two days later, I was on the road within 50 miles of home. A big truck with a cargo trailer slowed and stopped. I ran and got in from the heat. The air-conditioning felt good.

​ 两天后,我离家不到五十英里了。一个带有货运拖车的大卡车慢慢地开过来并停了下来。我赶紧跑过去上了车,摆脱酷热,吹着空调的感觉真好。

Para.19

Somewhat later rain began to fall, slowly at first, and then hard enough to soak the earth. I drifted off to sleep and woke feeling refreshed.

​ 不一会儿,开始下起雨来,起先很小,接着便是瓢泼大雨,足以浇透整个大地。我迷迷糊糊地睡着了,醒来时神清气爽。

Para.20

We were nearing my family’s farm. I was awake and alert. Would there be a light shining on the porch? It was torture to look and I couldn’t bear to do it. Suddenly, we were there. I surrendered myself to my fate!

​ 我们正在一点一点地接近我家的农场,我顿时清醒和警觉起来:门廊上会有一盏灯亮着吗?每看一眼就好似一种折磨,我简直受不了了。刹那间,我们到了。我只能听天由命,任凭命运摆布了!

Para.21

The truck driver smiled and said, “Look at that, would you! Just like in a fairy tale! That house there, the one just over there! Four bamboo cane chairs are sitting on the porch, with lightened lamps in every one of them, and an old man, as still as a statue, is out there with a flashlight aimed toward the road. AND, the porch light is on, too!”

​ 卡车司机微笑着说:“快看那儿,你还不赶快看!就像活生生的童话一样!看那边的那个房子,就是那边的那个!那门廊上放着四把竹藤椅,每把椅子上面都有亮着的灯。有位老人站在外面,丝毫不动,像一尊雕像一样,他正举着手电朝道路方向照呢!重要的是:门廊的灯也亮着!”

Unit 4

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
classic/‘klæsɪk/n. 名著;经典著作;大艺术家;adj. 经典的;古典的,传统的;最优秀的
romance/rə(ʊ)’mæns; ‘rəʊmæns/n. 传奇;浪漫史;爱情,恋爱;爱情故事;风流韵事;冒险故事;vi. 虚构;渲染;写传奇
cute/kjuːt/adj. 可爱的;漂亮的;聪明的,伶俐的
gaze/geɪz/n. 凝视;注视;vi. (常指无意识地)凝视;注视
weird/wɪəd/n.(苏格兰)命运;预言;adj. 怪异的;不可思议的;超自然的
cautious/‘kɔːʃəs/adj. 小心的,谨慎的,慎重的
dynamic/daɪ’næmɪk/n. 动态;动力;adj. 动态的;动力的;动力学的;有活力的
charm/tʃɑːm/n. 魅力,吸引力;魔力,可爱之处; vt. 使陶醉;行魔法;迷住,吸引;vi. 有魔力;用符咒
tempt/tem(p)t/vt. 怂恿,诱惑;引起;冒…的风险;使感兴趣
tempting/‘tem(p)tɪŋ/adj. 吸引人的;诱惑人的
reputation/repjʊ’teɪʃ(ə)n/n. 名声,名誉;声望
superior/suːˈpɪərɪə/n. 上级,长官;优胜者,高手;长者;adj. 上级的;优秀的,出众的;高傲的;更好的,更强的,更有效的
semester/sɪ’mestə/n. (尤指美国中学和大学的)一学期;半年
stale/steɪl/n. 尿;vt. 使变旧;变得不新鲜;vi. 变陈旧;撒尿;变得不新鲜;adj. 陈腐的,不再有趣的,没有新意的,乏味的;不新鲜的
component/kəm’pəʊnənt/n. 机器、系统等的零件;成分;组件;[电子] 元件;adj. 组成的,构成的
ambitious/æm’bɪʃəs/adj. 野心勃勃的;有抱负的,有雄心的;热望的;炫耀的
sexual/‘sekʃʊəl; -sjʊəl/adj. 性的;性别的;有性的;与性(生活)有关的
superb/suː’pɜːb; sjuː-/adj. 出色的,卓越的,极好的;华丽的;宏伟的
immune/ɪ’mjuːn/n. 免疫者;免除者;adj. 免疫的,有免疫力的;不受影响的,免于……的,免除的
consequently/‘kɒnsɪkw(ə)ntlɪ/adv. 结果,因此,所以
disgust/dɪs’gʌst/n. 厌恶,嫌恶,气愤,反感;vt. 使厌恶;使作呕
proceed/prə’siːd/n. 收入,获利;vi. 开始;继续进行,继续做;发生;行进
lodge/lɒdʒ/n. 旅馆;门房;集会处;山林小屋;vt. 正式提出(投诉、要求等);(通过付住宿费)借住,(为某人)提供住宿;寄存;嵌入;vi. 寄宿;临时住宿
behalf/bɪ’hɑːf/n. 代表;利益
approve/ə’pruːv/vt. 批准;赞成;为…提供证据;vi. 批准;赞成;满意
grant/grɑːnt/n. (尤指政府发给的)补助金,拨款;[法] 授予物;vt. 授予;允许;承认;vi. 同意
coordinate/kəʊ’ɔ:dɪneɪt/n. 坐标;同等的人或物;vt. 调整;整合;调节;vi. 协调;adj. 并列的;同等的
core/kɔː/n. 最重要(或最基本)的部分,核心;要点;果心;[计] 磁心;vt. 挖…的核
deserve/dɪ’zɜːv/vt. 应得,应受到(奖赏或惩罚),(建议、观点或计划)值得考虑、注意等
liberty/‘lɪbətɪ/n. 自由,自由权;擅自的行为,冒犯的举动,放肆的行为;许可
display/dɪ’spleɪ/n. 显示;炫耀;vt. 显示;表现,显露(某种情感、态度或特质);陈列;vi. [动] 作炫耀行为;adj. 展览的;陈列用的
disapprove/dɪsə’pruːv/vt. 不赞成;不同意,反对;vi. 不赞成;不喜欢
palm/pɑːm/n. 手掌;棕榈树;掌状物;vt. 将…藏于掌中;诓骗某人
weave/wiːv/n. 织物;织法;编织式样;vt. 编织;编排,编造(故事等);使迂回前进;vi. 纺织;编成;迂回行进
blur/blɜː/n. 模糊的记忆,记不清的事情,模糊不清的事物;污迹;vt. 涂污;使…模糊不清;使暗淡;玷污;vi. 沾上污迹;变模糊
kneel/niːl/vi. 跪着,跪下
propose/ v/(尤指正式向某人)求婚;提议,建议
confess/kən’fes/v. 承认(使自己尴尬的事情);坦白;忏悔;供认
knot/nɒt/n.(线、绳、布等打成的)结;节瘤,疙瘩;海里/小时(航速单位);(恐惧、愤怒等导致的)紧张(感);vt. 打结;vi. 打结
pessimistic/,pesɪ’mɪstɪk/adj. 悲观的,厌世的;悲观主义的
faithful/‘feɪθfʊl; -f(ə)l/adj. (对某人、信念、政党等)忠实的,忠诚的;如实的;准确可靠的
honeymoon/‘hʌnɪmuːn/n. 蜜月;蜜月假期;(新生事物、新建关系等的)短暂的和谐时期;vi. 度蜜月
commence/kə’mens/v. 开始;着手;[英]获得学位
bloom/bluːm/n. 花;青春;旺盛;vt. 使开花;使茂盛;vi. 开花;茂盛
indifferent/ɪn’dɪf(ə)r(ə)nt/adj. 漠不关心的;无关紧要的;中性的,中立的
impulse/‘ɪmpʌls/n. 冲动;[电子] 脉冲;刺激;神经冲动;推动力;vt. 推动
incline/ɪn’klaɪn/n. 倾斜;斜面;斜坡;vt. 使倾斜;使倾向于;vi. 倾斜;倾向;易于;有意做
inclined/ɪn’klaɪnd/adj. 趋向于…的;有…意向的,倾向于…的
daring/‘deərɪŋ/n. 胆量,勇气;adj. 大胆的,勇敢的
notion/‘nəʊʃ(ə)n/n. 概念;见解;打算;看法
abnormal/æb’nɔːml/adj. 反常的,不规则的;变态的
initiative/ɪ’nɪʃɪətɪv; -ʃə-/n. 主动权;首创精神;新方案;倡议;adj. 主动的;自发的;起始的
contact/‘kɒntækt/n. 接触,联系,联络,交往;(写信或带打电话)联系(某人);vt. 使接触,联系;vi. 使接触,联系
spark/spɑːk/n. 火花;朝气;闪光;vt. 发动;鼓舞;求婚;vi. 闪烁;发火花;求婚
reckon/‘rek(ə)n/vt. 测算,估计;认为;计算;vi. 估计;计算;猜想,料想
idle/‘aɪd(ə)l/vt. 虚度;使空转;vi. 无所事事;虚度;空转;adj. 闲置的;懒惰的;停顿的;不工作的,空闲的;不认真的,漫无目的的;
phenomenon/fɪ’nɒmɪnən/n. 现象;奇迹;杰出的人才
approval/ə’pruːv(ə)l/n. 批准;认可;赞成
leisure/‘leʒə/n. 闲暇;空闲;安逸;adj. 空闲的;有闲的;业余的
occasion/ə’keɪʒ(ə)n/n. 时机,机会;场合;理由; 特殊(或重大)场合;特殊(或重大)事件;vt. 引起,惹起
bonus/‘bəʊnəs/n. 奖金;红利;额外津贴;意外收获,额外的好处
forge/fɔːdʒ/n. 熔炉,锻铁炉;铁工厂;vt. 伪造,假冒(尤指文书、笔记等);锻造;前进;形成,缔结(尤指与其他人、团队或国家形成牢固的关系);vi. 伪造;做锻工;前进
bunch/bʌn(t)ʃ/n. 群;串;突出物;vt. 使成一串;使打褶;vi. 隆起;打褶;形成一串
alternate/ˈɔ:ltəneɪt;(for adj.)ɔ:lˈtɜ:nət/n. 替换物;vt. 使交替;使轮流;adj. 交替的;轮流的;vi. 交替;轮流
circulate/‘sɜːkjʊleɪt/vt. 使循环;使流通;使传播;vi. 传播,流传;循环;流通;(尤指在聚会上)应酬,来回周旋
undergo/ʌndə’gəʊ/vt. 经历,经受;忍受
preliminary/prɪ’lɪmɪn(ə)rɪ/n. 准备;预赛;初步措施;adj. (先于某物主要或最重要部分)初步的;开始的;预备的
plural/‘plʊər(ə)l/n. 复数;adj. 复数的; 多种的,多元的,多数的
plurality/plʊə’rælɪtɪ/n. 多数;复数;兼职;胜出票数; 形形色色的人,各种各样的东西
chip/tʃɪp/n. [电子] 集成电路片,芯片;筹码;碎片;(食物的) 小片; 薄片;vt. 削,凿;削成碎片;vi. 剥落;碎裂
clarify/‘klærɪfaɪ/vt. 澄清;阐明;vi. 得到澄清;变得明晰;得到净化
definite/‘defɪnɪt/adj. 肯定的,一定的;清楚的,明确的
whip/wɪp/n. 鞭子;抽打;车夫;[机] 搅拌器;vt. 抽打;煽动;搅打(蛋,奶油);彻底击败;突然移动(挪开);vi. 抽打;急走;拍击
frown/fraʊn/n. 皱眉,蹙额;vt. 皱眉,蹙额;vi. 皱眉;不同意
hasty/‘heɪstɪ/adj. 轻率的;匆忙的;草率的;懈怠的
hastily/‘heɪstɪlɪ/adv. 匆忙地;急速地;慌忙地
exceedingly/ɪk’siːdɪŋlɪ; ek-/adv. 非常;极其;极度地;极端
convey/kən’veɪ/vt. 传达;运输;让与
blast/blɑːst/n. 欢乐而刺激的经历;一阵疾风,一股气流;爆炸;冲击波;一阵;vi. 猛攻
thrive/θraɪv/vi. 繁荣,兴旺;vt. 爆炸;损害;使枯萎茁壮成长;欣欣向荣
dimension/dʌɪˈmɛnʃ(ə)n/n.(形势等的)方面,部分;[数] 维;尺寸;次元;容积;vt. 标出尺寸;adj. 规格的
formul/‘fɔːmjʊlə/n. [数] 公式,方程式,分子式;准则,方案;配方;婴儿食品 复数 formulas或formulae ]
nonsense/‘nɒns(ə)ns/n. 胡说;废话;荒谬的想法(看法);adj. 荒谬的;int. 胡说!
pat/pæt/n. 轻拍;小块;轻拍声;vt. 轻拍;vi. 轻拍;adj. 恰好的;熟练的;合适的;adv. 恰好;熟记地
pit/pɪt/n. 矿井;深坑;陷阱;(物体或人体表面上的)凹陷;(英国剧场的)正厅后排;正厅后排的观众;vt. 使竞争;窖藏;使凹下;去…之核;使留疤痕;vi. 凹陷;起凹点
conquer/‘kɒŋkə/vt. 战胜,征服;攻克,攻取;vi. 胜利;得胜
conceal/kən’siːl/vt. 隐藏;隐瞒(真实情感或真相)
thrill/θrɪl/n. 激动;震颤;紧张;vt. 使…颤动;使…紧张;使…感到兴奋或激动;vi. 颤抖;感到兴奋;感到紧张
thrilled/θrɪld/adj. 非常兴奋的;极为激动的;非常幸福的

Phrases and expressions

  1. head for (朝…)前进,(向…)去
  2. gaze at (常指无意识地)凝视,盯着看
  3. stare at 凝视,盯着看
  4. by accident 偶然,意外地
  5. pretend to do sth. 假装,装作…
  6. come over sb. (某种感情)突然攫住,突然影响
  7. immune to 不受…影响的,对…有免疫力的
  8. go along with sb./sth. 同意,支持
  9. expel sb. from sth. (从学校或组织中正式)开除
  10. proceed to sth. 进而做(参加)某事(活动)
  11. take the liberty of doing sth. 擅自做某事
  12. take sb. by surprise 出乎某人意料
  13. propose marriage 求婚
  14. be filled with 充满,装满
  15. tie the knot 结婚
  16. be pessimistic about 对…持悲观看法(意见)
  17. indifferent to (对…)不关心的,不在乎的
  18. be inclined to do sth. 有做某事的倾向,倾向于做某事
  19. take the initiative 采取主动,首先采取主动
  20. make contact (with sb.) 取得联系
  21. a bunch of 一群,一伙,一束,一串
  22. chip in (为共同的活动、支出)凑(钱),凑份子
  23. go Dutch (with sb.) (在饭店里)和某人各自结账,平摊费用
  24. whip out (很快地)拿出,抽出
  25. thrive on 乐意做(别人觉得难做或不乐意做的事情)
  26. slide into 悄悄移到
  27. in the pit of one's stomach 在胸口,在心窝

Articles

A

College sweethearts

图片

Para.1

I smile at my two lovely daughters and they seem so much more mature than we, their parents, when we were college sweethearts. Linda, who’s 21, had a boyfriend in her freshman year she thought she would marry, but they’re not together anymore. Melissa, who’s 19, hasn’t had a steady boyfriend yet. My daughters wonder when they will meet “The One,” their great love. They think their father and I had a classic fairy tale romance heading for marriage from the outset. Perhaps, they’re right but it didn’t seem so at the time. In a way, love just happens when you least expect it. Who would have thought that Butch and I would end up getting married to each other? He became my boyfriend because of my shallow agenda: I wanted a cute boyfriend!

​ 我微笑着看着我那两个可爱的女儿,她们似乎比她们的父母还是大学情侣那会儿更为成熟。琳达, 21 岁,在大学一年级交过一个男友,她曾以为会跟那个男孩结婚,但他们已不再来往了。梅丽莎, 19 岁,还没有一个固定的男友。我的女儿不知何时才能遇到她们的那个“唯一”,她们伟大的爱。她们认为她们的父亲和我有着一段经典的、童话般的浪漫史,从一开始就直奔婚姻的殿堂。也许,她们是正确的,但在那时似乎并不是那么回事。在某种程度上,爱神恰恰在你最没准备时来临。谁曾想到,布奇和我最终会结婚呢?他之所以成为我男友,只是因为当时我那肤浅的打算:我要找一个可爱的男友!

Para.2

We met through my college roommate at the university cafeteria. That fateful night, I was merely curious, but for him I think it was love at first sight. “You have beautiful eyes”, he said as he gazed at my face. He kept staring at me all night long. I really wasn’t that interested for two reasons. First, he looked like he was a really wild boy, maybe even dangerous. Second, although he was very cute, he seemed a little weird.

我们通过我的大学室友介绍在大学食堂相识。在那个命中注定的夜晚,我只是好奇,但对他而言,我认为是一见钟情。他凝视着我的脸,说:“你有一双美丽的眼睛。”他整个晚上一直盯着我。我真的对他没那么感兴趣,其原因有二。首先,他看起来就像是一个野小子,甚至还有些危险。其次,虽然他很可爱,却似乎有点怪异。

Para.3

Riding on his bicycle, he’d ride past my dorm as if “by accident” and pretend to be surprised to see me. I liked the attention but was cautious about his wild, dynamic personality. He had a charming way with words which would charm any girl. Fear came over me when I started to fall in love. His exciting “bad boy image” was just too tempting to resist. What was it that attracted me? I always had an excellent reputation. My concentration was solely on my studies to get superior grades. But for what? College is supposed to be a time of great learning and also some fun. I had nearly achieved a great education, and graduation was just one semester away. But I hadn’t had any fun; my life was stale with no component of fun! I needed a boyfriend. Not just any boyfriend. He had to be cute. My goal that semester became: Be ambitious and grab the cutest boyfriend I can find.

​ 他骑着自行车经过我的宿舍,装作与我“偶遇”,看到我时还假装惊讶。我喜欢被重视的感觉,但对他的野性和充满活力的个性却小心谨慎。他很会说话,这会迷倒任何女孩。当我开始爱上他时,恐惧向我袭来。他那令人激动的“坏小子形象”简直太诱人了。究竟是什么吸引了我?我,一直口碑极好。为了获得优异的成绩,我的注意力只专注在自己的学习上。但又怎么样呢?大学应该是学习的好时间,可也应该有一些乐趣。我已几乎达成了伟大的教育目标,离毕业只有一学期之遥了。但我却还没有享受过任何乐趣,我的生活乏味,没有一点新鲜感!我需要一个男朋友,当然不是任何男朋友。他必须很可爱。于是我那个学期的目标就成为:雄心勃勃,抓住一个我能找到的最可爱的男友。

Para.4

I worried what he’d think of me. True, we lived in a time when a dramatic shift in sexual attitudes was taking place, but I was a traditional girl who wasn’t ready for the new ways that seemed common on campus. Butch looked superb! I was not immune to his personality, but I was scared. The night when he announced to the world that I was his girlfriend, I went along with him. And then I suddenly thought: “Oh my gosh! Am I his girlfriend? How did that happen?” Then he whispered sweet words in my ear and said, “I’m going to marry you one day and I will be a lawyer. You will see.”

​ 我担心他会怎么看我。不错,我们生活在一个性观念正在发生戏剧性转变的时代,但我是一个传统的女孩,对在校园里似乎常见的新方式还没有心理准备。布奇看上去很出色!我对他的个性毫无免疫力,但我对此很害怕。那天晚上当他向大家宣布我是他女友时,我是同意的。但我随后突然清醒:“噢,我的天哪!我是他女友吗?这是怎么回事?”紧接着,他在我耳边低声地甜言蜜语:“有一天我要娶你,我会成为一名律师。你会看到这一天的。”

Para.5

I was laughing inside and said to myself, “I’d never marry this guy. He’s a rebel without a good future. He’s my boyfriend because I hate my boring student life. I just want to have fun.”

​ 我笑着对自己说:“我绝不会嫁给这个家伙。他是一个没有前途的叛逆者。他是我男朋友,只因为我恨枯燥的学生生活。我只想得到乐趣而已。”

Para.6

Sure enough, the following month, I found out he had failed all his courses. Consequently, he was going to be expelled from the university. To my disgust, he seemed resigned to his fate. I knew there was hope, so I led him to the college secretary for reconsideration.

​ 果然,一个月后,我发现他所有的课程都不及格。因而,他将被大学除名。令我厌恶的是,他似乎屈从了自己的命运。我知道还有希望,所以我带他去学院的秘书那儿进行复议。

Para.7

“You are going to graduate with a BA in political science from UPenn and proceed to the College of Law,” I told him, lodging an appeal on his behalf, which was approved. Butch was granted reconsideration. And, once we became steadies, he coordinated his studies and social life, passing all of his classes. He eventually studied law.

​ 我告诉他:“你要先从宾夕法尼亚大学拿到政治学学士学位,然后进入法律学院。”我以他的名义递交了呈请书,结果被批准了。校方同意复议布奇的情况。我们的男女朋友关系一经确定,他就协调了他的学习和社交生活,结果各门课都通过了。他最终学了法律。

Para.8

Despite Butch’s somewhat wild character, at his core, he is always a perfect gentleman and deserves a lot of credit for that. True, he’d sometimes take the liberty of displaying his love by planting a kiss on my lips right in front of my astonished friends who watched and disapproved. But the truth is we had a pure and responsible relationship for seven full years. Sitting by the palm trees, hand in hand, we would listen to romantic songs, watch the sunset, and weave dreams of being together with children of our own, forever.

​ 尽管布奇的性格有点野,但他在骨子里却是一个完美的绅士,这值得高度赞扬。的确,他有时会在我朋友面前亲吻我的嘴,擅自表达他的爱。我的朋友看到了很惊讶,也很不以为然。但事实上,我们在整整七年的恋爱关系中一直是纯洁和负责的。我们坐在棕榈树下,手牵着手,听着浪漫的歌曲,观赏着日落,编织着和我们自己的孩子在一起的美梦,一直到永远。

Para.9

Two years passed in a blur. One day, Butch took me by surprise as he knelt down and proposed marriage holding a dozen red roses! Filled with deep emotion, I confessed my love for him, “How roooomaaaantic!!” Then my brain woke up from fantasy land. I cried out, “Good heavens. No! We’re too young to tie the knot. We haven’t even graduated from college yet!” I really loved him but was pessimistic about our chances for success.

​ 两年糊里糊涂地过去了。一天,布奇出其不意地手捧着一打红玫瑰跪下向我求婚。我心中充满了深情,也坦诚了对他的爱:“太太太太太浪漫了!!”可我随即从幻想中惊醒。我大喊出来:“天哪。不!我们现在结婚还太早了。我们甚至还没有大学毕业呢!”我真的很喜欢他,但我对我们感情修成正果的机率却持悲观态度。

Para.10

We married five years later.

​ 五年后,我们结了婚。

Para.11

Our faithful journey of love and learning took us down rocky roads of hardship and on smooth easy-going highways. It is a long, romantic, sometimes crazy, love story that sums up a 29-year long honeymoon together as a couple who are still madly in love with each other. Our love commenced with a casual attraction but bloomed into a mature love and rich life.

​ 我们忠实的爱和学习之旅带我们走过艰难崎岖的岩石路,走上平坦易行的公路。它是一个永久、浪漫,有时又疯狂的爱情故事。它诠释了一对仍在疯狂地爱着对方的夫妇如何一起度过了 29 年之久的蜜月。我们的爱从漫不经心的互相吸引开始,但最终却发展出成熟的爱情和富足的生活。

B

Saving the date

Para.1

Every day I anxiously wait for you to get to class. I can’t wait for us to smile at each other and say good morning. When you arrive only seconds before the lecture commences, I’m indifferent to anything but your arrival. Instead of reviewing my lesson, I anticipate your footsteps and listen for your voice. Today is one of your late days, but I don’t mind because after a month of denying the impulse to ask you out, today I’m feeling bold. Today I’m inclined to act.

每天我都焦急地等你来上课。我迫不及待地等待我们的互相微笑,互问早安。你在离上课仅几秒前才出现,在那之前,我对任何东西都无动于衷,只会注意你的到来。我不温习功课,却期待着你的脚步声,期待听到你的声音。今天你又来晚了,但我不介意,因为在想约你出去的冲动被克制了一个月之后,今天我感觉大胆多了。今天,我要采取行动。

图片

Para.2

I know dating has changed dramatically in recent years, and for many women, asking men out isn’t daring. But because of my traditional upbringing, the simple notion of asking you out seems abnormal. Growing up, I heard the clear message: Men must take the initiative and make contact. They should call, ask and pay for the date. However, during my years at the university, I’ve learned otherwise. Many of my women friends have put a spark in their social lives by taking the initiative with men. My girlfriends reckon that it’s essential for women to participate more actively in the dating process. “I can’t be idle and wait,” my former roommate once said. “Hard as it is, if I want to date, I have to ask guys out!”

我知道约会方式近年来有了显著的改变,对许多女性来说,邀请男性出去已不是什么大胆的举动。但是,因为我所受的传统教育,邀请你出去这一简单的概念似乎非同寻常。从小到大,这一信息很明确:男性必须主动出击,联络女性。他们应该打电话,要求约会,并支付约会的费用。然而,在大学这么些年,我了解到的并非如此。我的许多女性朋友通过主动提出与男性交往,让她们的社交生活迸出了火花。我的女性朋友都认为,女性必须更多地参与约会的过程。“我不能无所事事、一味等待,”我的前室友曾说。“虽然这很难,但如果我想约会,我必须邀请男人出去!”

Para.3

More women are taking the initiative and invite men out, and many men say they view this new phenomenon with approval. They are relieved that dating no longer solely depends on their willingness and courage to take the first step. Then why am I so nervous?

更多的女性在争取主动,在邀请男性出去。许多男性说他们认同这一新现象。他们都松了一口气,约会不再仅仅取决于男性自己的意愿和勇气来踏出第一步。那么,我为什么还这么紧张?

Para.4

I tell myself to relax since dating is more casual today. A college date means anything from studying together to simply having leisure time together like watching a film. Most of my peers prefer casual dating because it’s cheaper and comfortable. Students have fewer anxiety attacks when they ask somebody to play tennis than when they plan a formal occasion.

我告诉自己要放松,因为如今的约会要比以往来得轻松。一个大学的约会可以是两个人一起做任何事,从一起学习到一起共度闲暇时间,如看电影。我的同龄人大多喜欢非正式的约会,因为它花费更少,且舒适。学生邀请人打网球要比他们计划一个正式场合的约会更感轻松。

Para.5

As an added bonus, casual dating also encourages people to forge healthy friendships prior to starting romantic relationships. Young people can relax and get to know each other more easily this way. For example, my roommate and her boyfriend were friends for four months before their chemistry clicked. They went out often with a bunch of mutual friends. They alternated paying the dinner check. “He was like any other friend,” my roommate said laughing. Another friend of mine believes casual dating improves people’s social lives, allowing them to circulate in wider social circles. When she wants to let a guy know she is interested, she’ll say, “Hey, let’s go get a yogurt.” or “How about a cup of tea?”

非正式约会的额外好处是,它鼓励人们在开始浪漫的关系前,先建立起健康的友谊。这样,年轻人可以更容易放松心情和了解对方。例如,我的室友和她的男友在他们来电之前做了四个月的普通朋友。他们经常与一群共同的朋友出去。他们轮流买单。“他就像任何其他的朋友一样,”我的室友笑着说。另一位朋友认为,非正式约会能改善人们的社交生活,使他们周旋于更广泛的社交圈。当她想要让一个男人知道她对他很感兴趣时,她会说:“嘿,我们去喝一杯酸奶吧。”或“一起喝杯茶如何?”

Para.6

Who pays for it? It’s not as easy as it used to be because the traditional rules of courtship are undergoing major changes. Preliminary statistics also affirm this. A plurality of young men say women should chip in and help pay after a few dates. An almost equal percentage of women offer to pay for themselves, even on a first date. But widespread confusion still exists. The new rules have yet to be clarified.

可谁来买单?这可不如以前那么容易了,因为求爱的传统规则正在发生重大变化。初步统计的数字也证明了这一点。众多的青年男子说,在约会几次后,女性应该帮着一同买单。几乎相等百分比的女性要求自己买单,哪怕是第一次约会。但巨大的困惑仍然存在,新规则还有待澄清。

图片

Para.7

My own past dates have taught me some things. Either “going Dutch” or allowing my date to pay can be a definite challenge. One date whipped out his wallet on our first date before I could suggest otherwise. During an after-dinner walk, he proceeded to tell me he was romantically interested in me. After I explained I was more interested in friendship, he seemed unhappy. He explained that since I’d accepted his paying for my dinner, he’d assumed I was interested in romance. He seemed angry with himself for treating me. I regretted allowing him to.

我自己过去的约会教会了我一些东西。“各付各的”或是让我的约会对象买单可以说都是绝对的挑战。有一个约会对象在我们第一次约会时,还没等我提出相左的建议,就掏出了钱包。在晚餐后散步时,他告诉我他想跟我谈恋爱。当我解释我对做朋友更感兴趣时,他似乎感到不快。他解释说,因为我接受了他请我吃晚餐,所以他认为我会跟他恋爱。他似乎对请我吃饭一事很生自己的气,而我也很后悔让他这么做。

Para.8

Another date frowned when I hastily opened my purse, pulled out my wallet, and offered to go Dutch. I asked politely, “How much do I owe you?” He said, “Uh, uh, you really don’t owe me anything, but if you insist …” He looked exceedingly embarrassed. To him, my gesture of offering to pay had conveyed a message of rejection.

另一个约会对象,在我急忙打开钱包掏出钱,并提出各付各的时,他皱起了眉头。我客气地问道:“我欠你多少钱?”他说:“嗯,嗯,你真的不欠我什么,但如果你坚持……”他显得极为尴尬。对他而言,我要付钱的行动已传达了他被拒绝的信息。

Para.9

Everyone seems confused as they try to clarify the new rules of dating. Who should ask whom out? Who should pay and when? So, while I do think dressing up and going out on traditional, formal dates is a blast, I thrive on casual dating because it has brought a valuable dimension to my social life. With casual dating, there’s less pressure and more equality. I can give roses as well as receive them! Casual dating is worthwhile because it works.

在试图搞清约会的新规则时,每个人似乎都感到困惑。谁应请谁出去?谁应付钱?什么时候付?所以,虽然我认为穿着正式地去一个传统、正式的约会是一种乐趣,但我还是乐意去非正式的约会,因为它给我的社交生活带来了有价值的一面。因为是非正式约会,压力较小,且更平等。我可以送别人玫瑰,别人也可以送我!非正式约会值得去做,因为它管用。

Para.10

So here I am, waiting. No magic formula guarantees he will say “yes”. I just have to relax, be myself and ask him out in a no-nonsense manner.

所以,我在这里等待着。没有神奇的方案可以确保他会说“好的”。我得放松,做我自己,并用一种没有废话的方式邀请他出去。

Para.11

He finally arrives. Sliding into his desk, he pats my shoulder and asks, “Hi, what’s up?”

他终于到了。在悄悄地溜到他的书桌时,他拍拍我的肩膀,说:“嗨,早上好啊!”

Para.12

“Good morning,” I answer cautiously. With a knot in the pit of my stomach, I conquer my fear and ask, “Hey, how about lunch after class on Friday?”

“早上好,”我谨慎地回答。因为紧张,我的心紧揪着,可是我征服了恐惧,问道:“嘿,这个周五下课后一起吃午餐,怎么样?”

Para.13

“You mean after the midterm?” he says with barely concealed enthusiasm. “I’d love to go to lunch with you.”

“你的意思是期中考试后吗?”他用难以掩饰的热情说:“我很愿意和你一起吃午餐。”

Para.14

Thrilled and smiling broadly, I confirm, “Well then, we’ll save the date!” “Yes, we will!” he replies cheerfully.

我很激动,笑得很开心,并跟他确认:“那,我们就定了那天啦!”“好,就那样!”他兴高采烈地回答。

Unit 5

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
manipulate/mə’nɪpjʊleɪt/vt. 操纵,控制(某人的思想和行为);操作;巧妙地处理;篡改
defy/dɪ’faɪ/n. 挑战;对抗;vt. 藐视;公然反抗;挑衅;使落空
contradict/kɒntrə’dɪkt/vt. 反驳;否定;与…矛盾;与…抵触;vi. 反驳;否认;发生矛盾
recession/rɪ’seʃ(ə)n/n. (经济)衰退,萧条,不景气;后退;凹处
grave/greɪv/n. 墓穴,坟墓;死亡;vt. 雕刻;铭记;adj. 重大的;严肃的;黯淡的;严峻的,严重的
nasty/‘nɑːstɪ/n. 令人不快的事物;性的吸引力;adj. 下流的;肮脏的;脾气不好的;不友善的,不友好的;恶毒的,险恶的
tone/[ɪˈzjuːm; ˈrɛzjʊmeɪ/n. 摘要;[təʊn] n. (说话的)语气,口气,腔调;色调;音调;音色;vt. 增强;用某种调子说;vi. 颜色调和;呈现悦目色调
resumer/管理/履历,简历;vt. (中断之后)继续,重新开始,继续;恢复,重新占用;vi. 重新开始,继续
depiction/dɪ’pɪkʃn/n. 描写,描述,描绘,叙述
gap/gæp/n. 间隙;缺口;差距;分歧,差额,差别;vt. 使形成缺口;vi. 裂开
paradox/‘pærədɒks/n. 悖论,反论;似是而非的论点;自相矛盾的人或事
odds/ɒdz/n. 几率;胜算;不平等;差别,(at odds with)(与某物)不一致,相矛盾
perspective/pə’spektɪv/n. (思考问题的)角度,观点;远景;透视图;adj. 透视的
upright/‘ʌpraɪt/n. 垂直;竖立;adj. 正直的,诚实的;垂直的,直立的;笔直的;合乎正道的
urge/‘ɜːdʒ/n. 强烈的欲望,迫切要求;推动力;vt. 力劝,敦促,催促;驱策,推进;vi. 强烈要求
suspend/sə’spend/vt. 延缓,推迟;使暂停,中止;(尤指因违规)使…暂时停学(停职);使悬浮;vi. 悬浮;禁赛
appetite/‘æpɪtaɪt/n.欲望,爱好;胃口,饮食
disguise/dɪs’gaɪz/n. 伪装;假装;用作伪装的东西;vt. 掩饰;假装;隐瞒
invade/ɪn’veɪd/vt. 侵略;侵袭;侵扰;(尤指不受欢迎地)涌入,蜂拥而至;vi. 侵略,侵占;侵入;侵袭;侵犯
utmost/‘ʌtməʊst/n. .极度,极限;最大可能;adj. 极度的;最远的
cereal/‘sɪərɪəl/n. 谷类,谷物;(通常与牛奶一起吃、作为早餐的)谷类食品;谷类植物;adj. 谷类的;谷类制成的
cruise/kruːz/n. 巡航,巡游;乘船游览,乘船度假;vt. 巡航,巡游;漫游;vi. 巡航,巡游;漫游
shortage/‘ʃɔːtɪdʒ/n. 缺乏,缺少;不足,短缺
cement/sɪ’ment/n. 水泥;接合剂;vt. 巩固(关系、看法等),加强;用水泥涂;接合;vi. 粘牢
derive/dɪ’raɪv/vt. 源于,源自;(从某物中)得到,得自;获得;vi. 起源
nourish/‘nʌrɪʃ/vt. 滋养,给…营养;怀有;使健壮
compact/kəm’pækt/n. 合同,契约;小粉盒;vt. 使简洁;使紧密结合;adj. 小而紧凑的,紧密的;简洁的
explicit/ɪk’splɪsɪt; ek-/adj. 明确的;清楚的;直率的,直截了当的;详述的
echo/‘ekəʊ/n. 回音【Echo 希腊神话中的回声女神】;效仿;vt. 反射;重复;vi. 随声附和(别人的观点);发出回声
stock/stɒk/n. 股份,股票;储备,库存,存货;血统;树干;家畜;肉汤;vt. 进货;备有;装把手于…;vi. 囤积;办货;出新芽;adj. 存货的,常备的;平凡的
scatter/‘skætə/n. 分散;散播,撒播;vt. 使散射;使散开,使分散;使散播,使撒播;vi. 分散,散开;散射
scattered/‘skætəd/adj. 分散的;散乱的
retain/rɪ’teɪn/vt. 保持;雇;记住;继续拥有
well-being/,wel’bi:ɪŋ/n. 幸福;康乐;舒适;健康
ingredient/ɪn’griːdɪənt/n. (烹调用的)成分,原料;(完成某事的)要素,因素;组成部分;adj. 构成组成部分的
hinder/‘hɪndə/adj. 后面的;vt. 阻碍;打扰;vi. 成为阻碍
consult/kən’sʌlt/vt. 查阅;商量;向…请教;vi. 请教;商议;当顾问
input/‘ɪnpʊt/n.(想法、建议或信息的)投入,输入;输入电;vt. [自]
option/‘ɒpʃ(ə)n/n. [计] 选项;选择权;可选择的东西;买卖的特权 [电子] 输入;将…输入电脑
administration/ədmɪnɪ’streɪʃ(ə)n/n. 管理,经营过程,管理过程;行政;实施;行政机构,(某一时期的)政府
ego/‘iːgəʊ; ‘e-/n. 自我;自负;自我意识【Sigmund Freud proposed that the mind was divided into three parts: the id, the ego and the superego. 】
urgent/ˈɜːdʒənt/adj. 紧急的;急迫的,需迅速处理的
urgently/‘ɝdʒəntli/adv. 迫切地;紧急地;急切地
tackle/‘tæk(ə)l/n. 滑车;装备;用具;扭倒;vt. 处理;抓住;固定;与…交涉;vi. 扭倒;拦截抢球
legal/‘liːg(ə)l/adj. 法律的;合法的;法定的;依照法律的,与法律有关的
choppy/‘tʃɒpɪ/adj. 波涛汹涌的;波浪起伏的;不断改变方向的
catalog/‘kætəlɒɡ/n. [图情] [计] 目录;登记;vt. 登记;为…编目录;vi. 编目录;按确定价格收入目录(=
feature/‘fiːtʃə/n. 特色,特征;容貌;特写或专题节目;vt. 特写;以…为特色;由…主演;vi. 起重要作用catalogue)
entitle/ɪn’taɪt(ə)l; en-/vt. 称做…;定名为…;给…称号;使…有权利
scout/skaʊt/n. 搜索,侦察;侦察员;侦察机;vt. 侦察;跟踪,监视;发现;vi. 侦察;巡视;嘲笑
issue/‘ɪʃuː; ‘ɪsjuː/n. 议题,争论的问题;流出;期号;发行物;vt. 发表(声明),发行,发布,颁布;发出(命令、警告等);发给;放出,排出;vi. 发行;流出;造成…结果;传下
filter/‘fɪltə/n. 滤波器;[化工] 过滤器;筛选;滤光器;vt. 过滤;渗透;用过滤法除去;vi. 滤过;渗入;慢慢传开
probe/prəʊb/n. 探针;调查;vt. 探查;用探针探测;vi. 调查;探测
sheer/ʃɪə/n. 偏航;透明薄织物;vt. 使偏航;使急转向;vi. 偏航;adj. 绝对的;透明的;峻峭的;纯粹的;(某物)之重/之大等(用于强调);adv. 完全;陡峭地
profile/‘prəʊfaɪl/n. 侧面;轮廓;外形;剖面;人物介绍;(某个地方的)概况,简况;vt. 描…的轮廓;扼要描述;vi. 给出轮廓
submit/səb’mɪt/vt. 使服从;主张;呈交,递交,呈递(计划等);vi. 提交;服从
corporation/kɔːpə’reɪʃ(ə)n/n. 大型公司,大企业,企业集团;法人(团体);社团;市政当局
installment/ɪn’stɔ:lmənt/n. 安装;分期付款的一期;部分;就职
tame/teɪm/adj. 驯服的,(由人)驯养的;平淡的,乏味的;顺从的;vt. 驯养;使变得平淡;制服;vi. 变得驯服
vitamin/‘vɪtəmɪn; ‘vaɪt-/n. [生化] 维生素;[生化] 维他命
artificial/ɑːtɪ’fɪʃ(ə)l/adj. 人造的;仿造的;虚伪的;非原产地的;武断的
rod/rɒd/n. 钓竿,棒,杆;惩罚;枝条;权力
rifle/‘raɪf(ə)l/n. 步枪;来复枪;vt. 用步枪射击;抢夺;偷走
stem/stem/n. (植物的)茎,根,柄;船首;血统;vt. 阻止;除去…的茎;给…装柄;vi. 阻止;起源于某事物;逆行
wardrobe/‘wɔːdrəʊb/n. 衣柜;行头;全部戏装
calculator/‘kælkjʊleɪtə/n. 计算器;计算者
trifle/‘traɪf(ə)l/n. 琐事,无价值的东西;蛋糕;少量;vi. 开玩笑;闲混;嘲弄;vt. 浪费;虚度
output/‘aʊtpʊt/n. 输出,输出量;产量;出产;vt. 输出
fund/fʌnd/n. 基金,专款;资金;存款;vt. 投资;资助
ongoing/‘ɒngəʊɪŋ/n. 前进;行为,举止;adj. 不间断的,进行的;前进的,继续进行的,不断发展的
principal/‘prɪnsəp(ə)l/n. 首长;校长;资本,本金;当事人;adj. 最重要的,首要的,主要的;资本的
penalty/‘pen(ə)ltɪ/n. (因违反法律、规则或合约受到的)惩罚,处罚;罚金
sanction/‘sæŋ(k)ʃ(ə)n/n. (对某国的)制裁,处罚;认可;支持;vt. 制裁,处罚;批准;鼓励
impose/ɪm’pəʊz/vt. 强加,强制推行,强制实行;征税;以…欺骗;vi. 利用;欺骗;施加影响
accordance/ə’kɔːd(ə)ns/n. 一致;和谐;依照,依据
gravity/ˈgrævətɪ/n. 重力,地心引力;(局势的)严重性;庄严
crisis/‘kraɪsɪs/n. (pl. crises)危机;危险期;决定性时刻;adj. 危机的;用于处理危机的
vision/‘vɪʒ(ə)n/n. 视力;美景;眼力;幻象;构想,设想;想象力;幻视(漫威漫画旗下超级英雄);vt. 想象;显现;梦见
autonomous/ɔː’tɒnəməs/adj. 有自主能力的,自主的;(地方或机构)自治的;自发的
shrug/ʃrʌg/n. 耸肩;vt. 耸肩,耸肩表示(不知道或不在乎);vi. 耸肩
prohibit/prə(ʊ)’hɪbɪt/vt. 阻止,禁止,使不可能
manufacture/mænjʊ’fæktʃə/n. 制造;产品;制造业;vt. (用机器大量)生产,制造;加工;捏造,编造(虚假情况、借口等);vi. 制造
cripple/‘krɪp(ə)l/n. 跛行的人;残废;vt. 严重损毁,削弱;(使)跛;使残废;adj. 跛的;残废的
bankrupt/‘bæŋkrʌpt/n. [经] 破产者;vt. 使破产;adj. 破产的,倒闭的
blend/blend/n. 混合;掺合物;(不同事物的)融合;vt. 混合;vi. 混合;协调
dissolve/dɪ’zɒlv/n. 叠化画面;画面的溶暗;vt. 使溶解;使分解;使液化;vi. 溶解;解散;消失
isolate/‘aɪsəleɪt/n. [生物] 隔离种群;vt. 使隔离;使孤立;使绝缘;vi. 隔离;孤立;adj. 隔离的;孤立的
isolated/‘aɪsəleɪtɪd/adj. 孤立的;分离的;单独的;[电] 绝缘的
suspicion/sə’spɪʃ(ə)n/n. 怀疑;嫌疑;疑心;一点儿
remedy/‘remɪdɪ/n. 补救法;治疗;赔偿;vt. 补救;治疗;纠正,改善
procedure/prə’siːdʒə/n.(尤指正确的或通常的做事)步骤,手续
severe/sɪ’vɪə/adj. 严峻的;严厉的;严格的;剧烈的;苛刻的
illusion/ɪ’l(j)uːʒ(ə)n/n.(尤其对自己的)幻觉,幻想;错觉;错误的观念或信仰
stagger/‘stægə/n. 蹒跚;交错安排;vt. 蹒跚;使交错;使犹豫;(使某人)惊愕,震惊;vi. 蹒跚,摇摇晃晃地走;犹豫;adj. 交错的;错开的
staggeringly/‘stægərɪŋli/adv. 摇晃地,蹒跚地;令人吃惊地,令人难以置信地

Phrases and expressions

  1. refer to 提到,谈到
  2. do one's utmost 竭尽全力(做某事)
  3. no shortage of 不缺少,不缺乏
  4. derive sth. from sth. 得到,获得(优势或愉快的感受)
  5. put off 推迟某事,使某事延期
  6. take in 领会,理解,支持
  7. take stock (of sth.) (对形势)作出估计(判断)
  8. consult with sb. 与某人商量
  9. on track 在(可能通向成功的)轨迹上
  10. get into trouble 处于困境
  11. get in one's way 挡着某人的路
  12. be/feel entitled to (do) sth. 使某人有权利做某事,使某人有资格做某事
  13. urge sb. to do sth 催促/力劝(某人)做某事
  14. filter out 滤除(不需要的文字、信息等)
  15. in despair 绝望地
  16. let sb./sth. down 使失望,辜负(别人的信任或期望)
  17. shrug off 对…满不在乎,对…不屑一顾
  18. lose interest in 对…失去兴趣
  19. tear at 撕扯
  20. out of the question 不可能,不允许
  21. care about 在乎,在意
  22. bring sb./sth. into 使处于(某种情形)
  23. suffer from 经受,承受,蒙受(非常不愉快或痛苦的事)
  24. access to 进入权,使用权,接触的机会

Articles

A

Spend or save

——The student’s dilemma

图片

Para.1

Do you feel as confused and manipulated as I do with this question, “Should I spend or should I save?” I think that the messages we get from our environment seem to defy common sense and contradict each other. The government tells us to spend or we’ll never get out of the recession. At the same time, they tell us that unless we save more, our country is in grave danger. Banks offer higher interest rates so we increase savings. Then the same banks send us credit card offers so we can spend more.

你是不是跟我一样对“我应该花钱还是存钱”这个问题感到困惑,且有被操纵的感觉?我觉得我们从生活的环境里所获得的信息似乎是有违常识、互相矛盾的。政府告诉我们要花钱,否则我们将永远走不出衰退;与此同时,他们又告诉我们,除非我们节省更多的钱,否则我们的国家会处于严重危险之中。银行提供较高的利率以增加储蓄。然后,同样是这些银行又提供信用卡让我们可以花更多的钱。

Para.2

Here’s another familiar example: If we don’t pay our credit card bill on time, we get demanding, nasty emails from the credit card company saying something like: “Your failure to pay is unacceptable. Pay immediately or you’ll be in trouble!” Then, as soon as we pay, we get a follow-up email in a charming tone telling us how valuable a customer we are and encouraging us to resume spending. Which depiction is correct: a failing consumer in trouble or a valued customer? The gap between these two messages is enormous.

这里还有一个大家熟悉的例子:如果我们不按时支付信用卡账单,我们会收到从信用卡公司发来的类似这样的令人讨厌的催缴账单的电子邮件:不还款是不可接受的。请立即缴付,否则后果自负!之后,一旦还款,我们就会收到一封跟进的电子邮件,语气和蔼可亲,说我们是多么宝贵的客户,并鼓励我们继续花钱。到底哪一个描述是正确的?有麻烦的失败消费者还是宝贵的客户?这两者之间可是天壤之别!

Para.3

The paradox is that every day we get two sets of messages at odds with each other. One is the “permissive” perspective, “Buy, spend, get it now. You need this!” The other we could call an “upright” message, which urges us, “Work hard and save. Suspend your desires. Avoid luxuries. Control your appetite for more than you truly need.” This message comes to us from many sources: from school, from parents, even from political figures referring to “traditional values”. Hard work, family loyalty, and the capacity to postpone desires are core American values that have made our country great.

自相矛盾的情况还有,我们每天都收到彼此相左的两种信息。一种从“纵容”的角度,让我们“买东西,花钱,现在就得到它。你需要这个!”另外一种,我们可称之为“正直”的信息,它力劝我们:“努力工作,把钱存起来。控制你的欲望,不要买奢侈品,不要垂涎那些你并不真正需要的东西。”这类信息来源甚多,有学校方面的,有家长方面的,甚至还来自提及传统价值观的政治人物。艰苦创业、忠于家庭、能推迟欲望是美国价值观的核心,它使我们的国家变得强大。

Para.4

But the opposite message, advertising’s permissive message, is inescapable. Though sometimes disguised, the messages are everywhere we look: on TV, in movies, on printed media and road signs, in stores, and on busses, trains and subways. Advertisements invade our daily lives. We are constantly surrounded by the message to spend, spend, spend. Someone recently said, “The only time you can escape advertising is when you’re in your bed asleep!”

但相反的信息,即那些纵容人们不断花钱的广告,无所不在。虽然此类信息有时经过了乔装打扮,但仍随处可见,电视、电影、印刷媒介和路牌、商店,及公共汽车、火车和地铁上,比比皆是。广告侵入了我们的日常生活。我们时时被包围在花钱,花钱,花钱的信息中。最近有人说:“唯一可以逃脱广告的时候是当在床上睡着时!”

Para.5

It’s been calculated that by the age of 18, the average American will have seen 600,000 ads; by the age of 40, the total is almost one million. Each advertisement is doing its utmost to influence our diverse buying decisions, from the breakfast cereal we eat to which cruise line we will use for our vacation. There is no shortage of ideas and things to buy! Now, of course, we don’t remember exactly what the products were, but the essential message is cemented into our consciousness, “It’s good to satisfy your desires. You should have what you want. You deserve the best. So, you should buy it - now!” A famous advertisement said it perfectly, “I love me. I’m a good friend to myself. I do what makes me feel good. I derive pleasure from nice things and feel nourished by them. I used to put things off. Not anymore. Today I’ll buy new ski equipment, look at new compact cars, and buy that camera I’ve always wanted. I live my dreams today, not tomorrow.

据计算,普通的美国人到 18 岁时,会看过 60 万则广告;到 40 岁时,看过的广告总数近百万。每个广告都在尽最大努力影响我们形形色色的购买决定——从我们吃的早餐麦片到我们的假期将使用哪条邮轮线路。决不会缺少怎么花钱和买什么东西的广告!现在,我们当然不能确切地记得广告上的产品,但重要的信息已凝聚在我们的意识里:“要满足你的愿望。你应该拥有你想要的。你应该得到最好的。所以,你应该买下它——现在!”一个著名的广告诠释得很完美:“我爱自己。我是自己的好朋友。我做让我感觉舒服的事。我从精美的东西里得到乐趣,并感觉到它们给我的滋养。我过去常想着等一下再买,现在再也不会了。今天,我会购买全新的滑雪装备,看看新型的小巧灵便的轿车,买下那台我一直想要的相机。我今天就要实现我的梦想,不会等到明天。”

Para.6

What happens as we take in these contradictory but explicit messages? What are the psychological and social consequences of this campaign to control our spending habits? On one hand, we want more things because we want to satisfy our material appetite. Most of us derive pleasure from treating ourselves. On the other hand, a little voice inside us echoes those upright messages: “Watch out, take stock of your life, don’t let your attention get scattered. Postpone your desires. Don’t fall into debt. Wait! Retain control over your own life. It will make you stronger.”

当我们接受这些相互矛盾但很明确的信息时,会有什么事情发生呢?这种控制我们花钱习惯的宣传活动会造成什么心理和社会上的影响呢?一方面,我们希望买更多的东西,来满足我们的物质欲望。我们中的大多数通过善待自己来得到乐趣。与此同时,我们身体里面有一个微弱的声音与那些正直的信息在共鸣:“当心,要掂量掂量自己的生活,不要让注意力分散。推迟欲望。不要陷入债务。要等待!保留对自己生活的控制权。这会让你更坚强。”

Para.7

Anyway, many of the skills you need as a successful student can be applied to your finances. Consider your financial well-being as a key ingredient of your university education as money worries are extremely stressful and distracting. They can make you feel terrible and hinder your ability to focus on your prime objective: successfully completing your education.

总之,一个成功的学生所需要的很多技能可以应用到你的财务中去。把良好的财务状况看成是大学教育中的一个关键因素,因为对金钱的担忧会让人倍感压力,并让人分心。它们会让你感觉很糟糕,并阻止你专注首要目标,即成功完成学业。

Para.8

How can you be a smart and educated consumer? Many schools, community organizations, and even some banks offer financial literacy classes. Consider consulting with your school’s financial aid office or seek input from your parents or other respected adults in setting up a budget. An additional option is finding a partner to help you stay on track and find pleasure in the administration of your own financial affairs. Most importantly, if you find yourself getting into financial trouble, don’t let your ego get in your way; urgently get help with tackling your problem before it spins out of control and lands you in legal troubles.

怎样才能成为一个聪明、有相关知识的消费者呢?许多学校、社区组织,甚至一些银行都提供金融扫盲班。可以考虑向学校的财务援助办公室咨询,或向父母或其他值得尊敬的成年人请教如何建立一个预算方案。另外一个选择是找一个合作伙伴来帮你保持良好的财务状况,并在管理自己的金融事务中找到乐趣。最重要的是,如果你发现自己正陷入财务困境,不要让你的自大妨碍你,在情况变得失控并惹上法律麻烦前,赶紧寻求帮助来解决问题。

Para.9

All this will help you become an educated consumer and saver. As you learn to balance spending and saving, you will become the captain of your own ship, steering your life in a successful and productive direction through the choppy waters.

这一切都将帮助你成为一个拥有相关知识的消费者和储蓄者。学会了如何平衡支出和储蓄,你就会成为你自己的船长,驾驶着你的生活之船,乘风破浪,驶向成功和富有。

B

A $3,000 dictionary

图片

Para.1

I remember a day some years back on one of the first days of a new semester in college. People were tossing balls, passing out catalogs, and handing out free stuff. I was completely charmed by all the activity. After all, a major feature of college life is limited finances. Free stuff is like gold and I felt entitled to my share!

我记得那是几年前的一天,是大学的新学期刚开学的日子。人们正在忙着扔球,分发目录,发放免费的东西。我完全被这些活动吸引了。毕竟大学生活的主要特点就是只能利用有限的资金,所以免费的东西就像金子一样,我觉得我理所当然也有份!

Para.2

I moved closer to scout out the situation. In my mind, I heard my mother issue her famous line: “There is no such thing as free stuff!”, as the student behind the table urged me to receive a brand-new dictionary. My mom’s voice was quickly filtered out as I reached out to claim my gift. I was handed a form instead. Once I completed the credit card application, I was told, I would receive a free dictionary. With the confidence that a probe of my finances would reveal the sheer weakness of my profile, I completed the form and submitted it.

我走近前去察看详情。当桌子背后的那位学生怂恿我去领一本免费的全新的字典时,我的脑海里仿佛听到了母亲的那句名言:“世上绝没有免费的东西。”母亲的声音随着我伸手去索要礼物很快就被过滤掉了。然而递给我的不是字典却是一张表格。我被告知,一旦填写信用卡申请表,就会收到一本免费的字典。我确信对我财产状况的调查会暴露我在财务上的不足,所以我填了表格,并把它交了。

Para.3

To my sheer amazement, plastic freedom made its way into my mailbox a few weeks later. At first, I was shocked that these huge credit card corporations trusted me, a struggling student holding two minimum wage part-time jobs and paying monthly installments on a purchased computer. But the credit card company seemed to know more than I did, so I accepted the card and decided it was perfect to develop my own credit like so many had done before me.

令我十分惊奇的是,信用卡竟在几个星期后寄到了我的邮箱。起初,我感到震惊,这些庞大的信用卡公司竟然信任我这个在经济上苦苦挣扎的学生,我只持有两份拿最低工资的兼职工作,每月还在分期支付之前所买的电脑。但这家信用卡公司似乎比我更了解自己,所以我接受了信用卡,并认为它是让我建立自己的信用的绝佳机会,就如许多人已在我之前就这么做的那样。

Para.4

My first purchases were tame: a T-shirt, vitamins, or a CD as if I hadn’t had the card. Soon, however, I began to buy things that I wanted. With my artificial sense of security, I bought a guitar, a fishing rod and a hunting rifle, long-stem roses for my girlfriend, a brand-new wardrobe, a sophisticated new calculator, and countless other trifles I felt I “absolutely needed”. I began to accumulate debt.

我最初买的东西平淡无奇:一件 T 恤衫,一点维生素,或一盘光碟,没有信用卡时我也买这些。然而,很快就开始买我想要的东西了。有了信用卡给我的那份虚假的安全感,我买了一把吉他,一根钓竿,一支猎枪,给我女朋友的长茎玫瑰,一个全新的衣柜,一个精密的新计算器,和无数其他我觉得“非要不可”但却是毫无价值的东西。我开始累积债务了。

Para.5

Making matters worse, I lost one part-time job and with it my output of funds grew ever smaller, like those now long-dead roses. I began taking cash advances just to eat. There was barely enough money from my paychecks to cover basic ongoing living expenses, and satisfying the minimum monthly payment on the card was impossible. Now, the principal balance doubled due to late payment penalties and other sanctions that the credit card issuer imposed in accordance with the contract.

更糟的是,我失去了一份兼职工作,这样我能使用的资金就如那些凋零的玫瑰一样,越来越少。我开始为了吃饭而预支现金。我的薪水勉强够维持基本生活费,我无法还信用卡的每月最低支付额。现在,由于信用卡发行公司按照合同规定对逾期还款进行了罚款,再加上其他惩处,我所欠余额增加了一倍。

Para.6

Usually, I’m not a person who takes things too seriously. I always see the positive side of negative situations, but the gravity of my credit card debt crisis had left me in despair. My parents provided the tuition for school, so I believed it was my responsibility to take care of everything else in my life. I owed them more than I could possibly imagine, specifically their vision of a boy becoming a truly autonomous man. Now, I was letting them, and myself, down. Every time my mom called to chat, she always asked if I needed money. I knew her heart would break if I had said “Yes”, so I shrugged it off and hid everything from her.

通常情况下,我不是一个把什么都太当回事的人。我总会在消极的情况下看到积极的一面,但我严重的信用卡债务危机使我感到绝望。我的父母为我提供了学费,所以我认为照料好我生活中的其他一切是我的责任。我欠他们的比我能想象的更多,说得明确些,我辜负了他们盼望一个男孩能成为一个真正有自主能力的男人的期望。现在,我让他们和我本人失望了。每次我妈妈打电话来跟我闲聊,总会问我是否需要钱。我知道如果我说“是”,她的心会碎掉的,所以我装作满不在乎,对她隐瞒了一切。

Para.7

I began to lose interest in many activities in which I’d become involved. Friends would call and invite me for dinner, but my finances would prohibit any expenses, so I’d decline every time. I would manufacture excuses for why I always said “No” to their offers. My dirty little secret began to tear at my emotional stability. Soon, calls from friends became more infrequent, meeting new people was out of the question, and my mom began exclaiming she didn’t know why she even bothered to call me. A simple matter of credit card debt caused me to drive everything I cared about from my life. I felt emotionally crippled and financially bankrupt!

我开始对我以往热衷的很多活动失去兴趣。朋友们打电话来邀请我去吃饭,但我的财务状况使我不能花任何钱,所以我每次都拒绝。我会编造借口来解释为什么我对他们的提议总是说“不”。我那见不得人的小秘密开始扰乱自己的情绪。不久,朋友的电话变少了,也不可能结识新朋友,我妈妈也开始感叹她不知为什么还要费心给我打电话。信用卡债务这一简单的事件让我不得不将我所在乎的一切都从我的生活中驱逐出去。我已精神崩溃,且财务破产!

Para.8

After graduation, I finally explained my financial distress to my mother. It had been several years since my awful money issues began, so I believed the wound to be fairly well healed, but the blend of disgust and emotion I felt when I explained my credit card debt was torture. I choked on every word, and I hesitated on the number. I felt physical pain when I looked her in the eye. There was nothing more terrifying to me than exemplifying a parent’s nightmare. The time had come to move toward a solution. At that moment, I felt the negativity I had brought into my life began to dissolve.

毕业后,我终于向母亲解释了我的财务困境。我那可怕的金钱问题从开始至今已好几年了,所以我以为伤口愈合得相当不错了,但是当我向母亲解释我的信用卡债务时,对自己的厌恶感和所感到的尴尬合并成一种折磨。我哽咽着说出每一个字,并迟疑地扳出具体数字。当我看着她的眼睛时,我感到了身体上的痛苦。对我而言,没有什么比成为父母噩梦的实例更可怕。是解决问题的时候了。在那一刻,我觉得我给生活带来的消极面开始消散。

Para.9

Recently I learned that I’m not an isolated case, not the only college student to suffer from credit card chaos. In a time of sky-high tuition costs, many students fall to the temptation of easily accessible credit cards. They are left with tremendous amounts of debt before their lives have even truly begun.

最近我才知道,我不是一个孤立的事件,不是唯一遭受信用卡之苦的大学生。在学费高昂的时代,很多学生都会受到轻而易举就可获得的信用卡的诱惑。在他们的生活甚至还没真正开始之前,他们已债台高筑。

Para.10

Credit card is not the criminal. However, there is a suspicion that credit card companies have provided students with access to debt, knowing it has the potential to ruin their future. To remedy this situation, the screening procedures must become more severe, and college campuses should be free of credit card marketers. If this does not change, many students, like myself, will suffer the consequences of the illusion of a seemingly free but staggeringly expensive $3,000 dictionary.

信用卡无罪。然而,令人怀疑的是信用卡公司明知债务有可能断送学生的未来,却为他们提供了债务缠身的通道。为了改变这种情况,信用审查程序必须变得更加严格,大学校园不准有信用卡营销。如果这个不改变,很多学生就会像我一样,遭受看似免费但却高达3,000 美元的字典的假象所带来的后果。

Unit 6

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
rival/‘raɪvl/n. 对手;竞争者;vt. 与…竞争;比得上某人;vi. 竞争;adj. 竞争的
secondary/‘sek(ə)nd(ə)rɪ/n. 副手;代理人;adj. 第二的;中等的;次要的,从属的;中级的
imperial/ɪm’pɪərɪəl/n. 纸张尺寸;特等品;adj. 帝国的;皇帝的;至高无上的;威严的
raid/reɪd/n. 袭击;突袭;搜捕;抢劫;vt. 袭击,(军队的)突袭;vi. 突袭
territory/‘terɪt(ə)rɪ/n. 领土,领域;范围;地域;版图
opponent/ə’pəʊnənt/n. 对手;反对者;(竞争、比赛等的)敌手;adj. 对立的;敌对的
motivate/‘məʊtɪveɪt/vt. 刺激;使有动机;激发…的积极性
loyal/‘lɒɪəl/n. 效忠的臣民;忠实信徒;adj. 忠诚的,忠心的;忠贞的
vessel/‘ves(ə)l/n. 船,舰;[组织] 脉管,血管;容器,器皿
genius/‘dʒiːnɪəs/n. 天才,天赋;精神
conviction/kən’vɪkʃ(ə)n/n. 定罪;确信;证明有罪;确信,坚定的信仰
validate/‘vælɪdeɪt/vt. 证实,验证;确认;使生效,使合法化
exception/ɪk’sepʃ(ə)n; ek-/n. 例外;异议
veteran/‘vet(ə)r(ə)n/n. 老兵,退伍军人;老手;富有经验的人;老运动员;adj. 经验丰富的,老练的;老兵的
conquest/‘kɒŋkwest/n. 击败,征服,攻占;(对艰难、危险事物的)攻克;战利品
summit/‘sʌmɪt/n. 顶点,某事物的顶峰,某事物的极点;最高级会议;最高阶层;adj. 最高级的;政府首脑的
enlighten/ɪn’laɪt(ə)n; en-/vt. 启发,启蒙;教导,开导;照耀
enlightening/ɪn’laɪtənɪŋ/adj. 使人领悟的;有启发作用的
publication/,pʌblɪ’keɪʃ(ə)n/n. 出版;出版物;发表
irrational/ɪ’ræʃ(ə)n(ə)l/n. [数] 无理数;adj. 不合理的;无理性的;荒谬的
investigate/ɪn’vestɪgeɪt/vt.查明,调查,侦查(犯罪、事故或科学问题的真相)
investigation/ɪn,vestɪ’geɪʃ(ə)n/n.(对犯罪、事故或科学问题等进行的正式的)调查,侦查;调查研究
marshal/‘mɑːʃ(ə)l/n. 元帅;司仪;vt. 整理(思路、想法等);引领;编列;vi. 排列
behavioral/bɪ’hevjərəl/adj.行为的,行为方式的
profit/‘prɒfɪt/n. 利润,利益,盈利;vt. 有益于,使…得到;vi. 获利;有益
revolve/rɪ’vɒlv/n. 旋转;循环;旋转舞台;vt. 使…旋转;使…循环;反复考虑;vi. 旋转;循环出现;反复考虑
preserve/prɪ’zɜːv/n. 保护区;禁猎地;加工成的食品;(某人或群体的)专门活动;vt. 保存;保护;维持;腌;禁猎
session/‘seʃ(ə)n/n. 会议;(法庭的)开庭;(议会等的)开会;学期;讲习会;(一批人参加某项活动的)一段时间
fluctuate/‘flʌktʃʊeɪt; -tjʊ-/vt. 使波动;使动摇;vi. 波动;起伏;涨落;动摇
modify/‘mɒdɪfaɪ/vt. 修改,修饰;更改;vi. 修改
visual/‘vɪʒjʊəl; -zj-/adj. 视觉的,视力的;栩栩如生的
protest/prəˈtest;ˈprəʊtest/n. 抗议;vt. 抗议;断言;vi. 抗议;断言;adj. 表示抗议的;抗议性的
cling/klɪŋ/vi. 坚持,墨守;紧贴;附着
factor/‘fæktə/n. 因素;要素;[物] 因数;代理人;vt. 把…作为因素计入;代理经营;把…分解成;vi. 做代理商
underneath/ʌndə’niːθ/n. 下面;底部;adj. 下面的;底层的;adv. 在下面;在底下;prep. 在…的下面;在…的形式下;在…的支配下
temporary/ˈtɛmp(ə)rəri/n. 临时工,临时雇员;adj. 暂时的,临时的
restore/rɪ’stɔː/vt. 恢复;修复;归还;vi. 恢复;还原
implement/‘ɪmplɪm(ə)nt/n. 工具,器具;手段;vt. 实施,执行;实现,使生效,贯彻
delegate/ˈdɛlɪˌɡeɪt; -ɡɪt; (for v.,) ˈdɛlɪˌɡeɪt/n.代表;vt.授权,委托(权限)(给下级);下放(权力)
prune/pruːn/n. 深紫红色;傻瓜;李子干;vt. (尤指为缩减规模或降低成本)削减,裁减;修剪,剪去;vi. 删除;减少
discard/dɪ’skɑːd/n. 抛弃;被丢弃的东西或人;vt. 抛弃;放弃;丢弃;vi. 放弃
outward/‘aʊtwəd/n. 外表;外面;物质世界;adj. 向外的;外面的;公开的;外服的;肉体的;adv. 向外(等于outwards);在外;显而易见地
prejudice/‘predʒʊdɪs/n. 偏见;侵害;vt. 损害;使有偏见
prejudiced/‘predʒədɪst/adj. 怀偏见的;有成见的;偏颇的
dose/dəʊs/n.一份,一点;(药物的)一剂,一副,一次服用量;vt. 给药;给…服药;vi. 服药
respective/rɪ’spektɪv/adj. 分别的,各自的
haste/heɪst/n. 匆忙;急忙;轻率;vt. 赶快;vi. 匆忙;赶紧
venture/‘ventʃə/n. 企业;风险;冒险;vt. 敢于;小心地说,谨慎地做 ;vi. 冒险;投机
acid/‘æsɪd/n.(化学物质)酸;<俚>迷幻药;adj. 酸的;讽刺的;刻薄的
hint/hɪnt/n. 暗示;线索;vt. 暗示;示意;vi. 示意
remote/rɪ’məʊt/n. 远程;adj. 遥远的;偏僻的;疏远的;(not have the remotest idea / interest / intention, etc.)一无所知,毫无兴趣,毫无打算
distribute/dɪ’strɪbjuːt; ‘dɪstrɪbjuːt/vt. 分配;散布;分开;把…分类;(尤指有计划地)分发
transaction/træn’zækʃ(ə)n; trɑːn-; -‘sæk-/n. 交易,业务,买卖;事务;办理;会报,学报
provoke/prə’vəʊk/vt. 驱使;激怒;煽动;惹起
pants/pæn(t)s/n.(BrE. trousers)长裤
render/‘rendə/n. 打底;交纳;粉刷;vt. 致使;提出;实施;着色;以…回报;给予,提供;vi. 给予补偿
wreck/rek/n. 破坏;失事;残骸;失去健康的人,病重的人;疲惫不堪的人;vt. 破坏;使失事;拆毁;vi. 失事;营救失事船只
category/‘kætɪg(ə)rɪ/n. 种类,分类,类别;[数] 范畴
shampoo/ʃæm’puː/n. 洗发;洗发水;vt. 洗发
enforce/ɪn’fɔːs; en-/vt. 实施,执行;强迫,强制
enforced/ɪn’fɔrst/adj.被迫的,强制执行的
highlight/‘haɪlaɪt/n. 最精彩的部分;最重要的事情;加亮区;vt. 突出;强调;使显著;加亮;挑染(头发);使注意力集中于;(用色笔)标出,(在计算机上用不同颜色)突出显示
crash/kræʃ/n. 撞碎;坠毁;破产;轰隆声;睡觉;vt. 打碎;使坠毁、撞坏;擅自闯入;vi. 摔碎;坠落;发出隆隆声;(金融企业等)破产
vacant/‘veɪk(ə)nt/adj. 空虚的;空的;空缺的;空闲的,无人用的;茫然的
rely/rɪ’laɪ/vi.(rely on/upon)信任,信赖
implication/ɪmplɪ’keɪʃ(ə)n/n. 含义;暗示;牵连,卷入;可能的结果,影响
verify/‘verɪfaɪ/vt. 核实;查证;证实,证明
abundance/ə’bʌnd(ə)ns/n. 充裕,丰富,大量
overabundance/,əʊvərə’bʌndəns /n. 过多;过于丰富;过剩
subtract/səb’trækt/vt. 减去;扣掉
subtraction/səb’trækʃn/n. [数] 减法;减少;差集
penetrate/ˈpɛnɪˌtreɪt/vt. 洞察;进入,渗入,刺入,穿过,穿透;vi. 渗透;刺入;看透
penetrating/‘penɪtreɪtɪŋ/adj. 渗透的;尖锐的;有洞察力的;思维敏锐的;锐利的(目光、眼睛、凝视等)
selfish/‘selfɪʃ/adj. 自私的;利己主义的
transfer/træns’fɜː; trɑːns-; -nz-/n. 转让;转移;传递;过户,把(钱)转到另一账户(机构)上;vt. 使转移;调任;vi. 转让;转学;换车
property/‘prɒpətɪ/n. 性质,性能;所有物,资产,财产,房产,地产,房地产;所有权
residence/‘rezɪd(ə)ns/n. 住宅,住处,宅邸,官邸;居住
trademark/‘treɪdmɑːk/n.商标;(某人的)标记,特征
maximize/‘mæksɪmaɪz/vt. 取…最大值;对…极为重视;vi. 尽可能广义地解释;达到最大值
maximizer/‘mæksɪmaɪzə/n. 达到极大;使…最大化的人
dominate/‘dɒmɪneɪt/vt. 控制;支配;占优势;在…中占主要地位;vi. 占优势;处于支配地位
circular/‘sɜːkjʊlə/n. 通知,传单;adj. 循环的;圆形的;环形的
concerning/kən’sɜːnɪŋ/prep.关于,有关,涉及
lest/lest/conj.唯恐,生怕;免得,以免
overlook/əʊvə’lʊk/n. 忽视;眺望;vt. 忽略;俯瞰;远眺;检查;高耸于…之上
accuse/ə’kjuːz/vt. 控告,指控;谴责;归咎于;vi. 指责;控告
overwhelming/,ovɚ’wɛlmɪŋ/adj.难以抵抗的,令人不知所措的;压倒性的,势不可挡的
controversy/‘kɒntrəvɜːsɪ; kən’trɒvəsɪ/n. 争论;论战;辩论
angle/‘æŋg(ə)l/n. 角度,角,方面;vt.使…指向一定的角度;vi. 钓鱼;谋取
prescribe/prɪ’skraɪb/vt. 规定,指定;给…开药(开处方);vi. 规定;开药方
whatsoever/wɒtsəʊ’evə/adv.丝毫(用于);pron.任何事物,无论什么
rejoice/rɪ’dʒɒɪs/vt. 使高兴;vi. 高兴;庆祝;喜悦,欣喜
precaution/prɪ’kɔːʃ(ə)n/n. 预防,警惕;预防措施;vt. 警惕;预先警告
stir/stɜː/n. 搅拌;轰动;vt. 搅拌;激发,激起(强烈的感情),引起(强烈的反应);vi. 搅动;传播;走动
renew/rɪ’njuː/vt. 使更新,(停下一段时间后)重新开始;续借;续费;复兴;重申;延长(协议、官方文件等的)期限,使续期;vi. 更新;重新开始
withstand/wɪð’stænd/vt. 抵挡;禁得起;反抗;vi. 反抗
specify/‘spesɪfaɪ/vt. 指定;具体指明,明确说明,详述,详细说明;列举;把…列入说明书
trace/treɪs/n. 痕迹,踪迹;微量;[仪] 迹线;缰绳;vt. 追踪,查探;描绘;回溯;vi. 追溯;沿路走

Phrases and expressions

  1. impose sth. on sb. 将…强加于…
  2. be featured in 在…中被专题介绍,被特写
  3. profit from 从…中收益
  4. revolve around 以…为主题(目的),围绕
  5. be exhausted from 因…而筋疲力尽,因…疲惫不堪
  6. come in handy 派得上用场
  7. be attached to sth./sb. 喜欢(依恋)某物或某人
  8. pay a big price to do sth. 花很大代价做某事
  9. be measured in sth. 用某物来衡量
  10. make an effort to do sth. 尽量试着做某事,勉强试着
  11. rush into 冲进,奔向
  12. in haste 匆忙的,急忙的
  13. out of control 失去控制
  14. settle for 勉强接受,将就
  15. be dissatisfied with 对某事或某人不满意
  16. be depressed about 对…感到沮丧
  17. struggle to do sth. 努力做某事,用力做某事
  18. when it comes to 在某个方面,说到某事
  19. turn out (to be) 结果是,最终成为
  20. belong to 属于(某人)

Articles

A

Door closer, are you?

关门者,你是吗?

图片

图片

Para.1

The next time you’re deciding between rival options, one which is primary and the other which is secondary, ask yourself this question: What would Xiang Yu do?

下次你要在两个难于取舍的、主要的和次要的选择之间做决定时,不妨问自己这样一个问题:项羽会怎么做?

Para.2

Xiang Yu was a Chinese imperial general in the third century BC who took his troops across the Zhang River on a raid into enemy territory. To his troops’ astonishment, he ordered their cooking pots crushed and their sailing ships burned.

项羽是公元前三世纪中国古代王朝的一位将军。他带领他的部队横渡漳河,突袭进入了敌方的领地。他下令砸锅烧船,令他的部队大为震惊。

Para.3

He explained that he was imposing on them a necessity for attaining victory over their opponents. What he said was surely motivating, but it wasn’t really appreciated by many of his loyal soldiers as they watched their vessels go up in flames. But the genius of General Xiang Yu’s conviction would be validated both on the battlefield and in modern social science research. General Xiang Yu was a rare exception to the norm, a veteran leader who was highly respected for his many conquests and who achieved the summit of success.

他解释道,他强加给他们的是战胜对手的必要举措。他所说的无疑十分鼓舞士气,但当他那许多忠诚的士兵眼睁睁地看着他们的船只在火焰中被焚毁时,他们并不赞成他的做法。不过项羽将军的这种砸锅焚船的做法所显示出的天赋,在战场上和现代社会科学研究中都将得到肯定。项羽将军是一个罕见的不墨守成规的人,他是一位经验丰富的领袖,由于他征战无数并达到了成功的顶峰,他深受尊敬。

Para.4

He is featured in Dan Ariely’s enlightening new publication, Predictably Irrational, a fascinating investigation of seemingly irrational human behavior, such as the tendency for keeping multiple options open. Most people can’t marshal the will for painful choices, not even students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where Dr. Ariely teaches behavioral economics. In an experiment that investigated decision-making, hundreds of students couldn’t bear to let their options vanish, even though it was clear they would profit from doing so.

丹·阿雷利极富启迪性的新书《可预见的非理性》对项羽作了专题介绍。这本书对看似非理性的人类行为,譬如人类总想留住多项选择机会的倾向,进行了引人入胜的调查。大多数人都不能整理自己的思路来做痛苦的选择,麻省理工学院上阿雷利博士行为经济学这门课的学生也不例外。在调查作决策的一项实验中,几百名学生都不能忍受眼睁睁看着他们的选择机会消失,即使他们很清楚这样做对他们有利。

Para.5

The experiment revolved around a game that eliminated the excuses we usually have for refusing to let go. In the real world, we can always say, “It’s good to preserve our options.” Want a good example? A teenager is exhausted from soccer, ballet, piano, and Chinese lessons, but her parents won’t stop any one of them because they might come in handy some day!

实验是围绕着一个游戏展开的,这个游戏排除了我们通常不肯放手的借口。在现实世界里,我们总会说:“保留我们的选择机会是对的。”想要一个好的例子吗?一个十多岁的女孩被足球、芭蕾舞、钢琴、中文课给累得筋疲力尽,但她的父母不会让她停止任何一项活动,理由是它们有一天可能会派上用场!

Para.6

In the experiment sessions, students played a computer game that provided cash behind three doors appearing on the screen. The rule was the more money you earned, the better player you were, given a total of 100 clicks. Every time the students opened a door by clicking on it, they would use up one click but wouldn’t get any money. However, each subsequent click on that door would earn a fluctuating sum of money, with one door always revealing more money than the others. The important part of the rule was each door switch, though having no cash value, would also use up one of the 100 clicks. Therefore, the winning strategy was to quickly check all the doors and keep clicking on the one with the seemingly highest rewards.

在这个实验里,学生要玩一个电脑游戏:在电脑屏幕上会显示三扇门,每扇门后都会提供一些现金。该游戏的规则是每个人都只能点击 100 次,你点击获取的钱越多,你就玩得越好。学生每点击一次打开一扇门,他们会用掉一个点击数,但却不会得到任何钱。然而,随后接着在那扇门上的每次点击都会挣得数额不等的钱,三扇门显示的钱总有一扇比另外两扇多。这个游戏规则的重点是虽然每次换门没有金钱回报,可还是会用掉一次点击数。所以,制胜战略是要迅速查看所有的门,然后只点击那扇似乎是钱最多的门。

Para.7

While playing the game, students noticed a modified visual element: Any door left unclicked for a short while would shrink in size and vanish. Since they already understood the game, they should have ignored the vanishing doors. Nevertheless, they hurried to click on the lesser doors before they vanished, trying to keep them open. As a result, they wasted so many clicks rushing back to the vanishing doors that they lost money in the end. Why were the students so attached to the lesser doors? They would probably protest that they were clinging to the doors to keep future options open, but, according to Dr. Ariely, that isn’t the true factor.

在玩游戏时,学生们注意到了一个视觉上的变化:如果有片刻没点击某扇门,那扇门就会慢慢缩小并消失。由于他们已了解了游戏规则,他们本应对要消失的门不予理睬。然而,在它们消失以前,他们却迫不及待地去点击那些变小的门,试图让它们开启着。结果是,他们在匆忙回去点击那些快消失的门时浪费了很多点击数以至于最后输了钱。为什么学生对那些变小的门如此依恋呢?他们可能会争辩说,他们紧抓住这些门是为将来多留一些机会。但是,据阿雷利博士说,这不是真正的原因。

Para.8

Instead of the excuse to maintain future options open, underneath it all the students’ desire was to avoid the immediate, though temporary, pain of watching options close. “Closing a door on an option is experienced as a loss, and people are willing to pay a big price to avoid the emotion of loss,” Dr. Ariely says. In the experiment, the price was easily measured in lost cash. In life, the corresponding costs are often less obvious such as wasted time or missed opportunities.

在他们为将来多留一些机会的借口背后反映出的是所有的学生都不堪目睹眼前的选择机会被剥夺,尽管这种痛苦是临时的。阿雷利博士说:“每闭上一扇选择之门就如同经受了一次损失,人们宁愿付出很大的代价,也要避免情感的失落。”在实验中,损失很容易用丢失的现金来衡量。在生活中,相应的损失就往往没那么明显,如浪费时间,错过机会。

Para.9

“Sometimes these doors are closing too slowly for us to see them vanishing,” Dr. Ariely writes. “We may work more hours at our jobs without realizing that the childhood of our sons and daughters is slipping away.”

“有时候,这些门是慢慢关闭的,我们没有看到它们在悄然消失阿雷利博士写道:“我们可能花很多时间在工作上,却没有意识到我们子女的童年正在悄悄溜走。”

Para.10

So, what can be done to restore balance in our lives? One answer, Dr. Ariely says, is to implement more prohibitions on overbooking. We can work to reduce options on our own, delegating tasks to others and even giving away ideas for others to pursue. He points to marriage as an example, “In marriage, we create a situation where we promise ourselves not to keep options open. We close doors and announce to others we’ve closed doors.”

那么,我们可以做些什么让我们的生活恢复平衡呢?阿雷利博士说,一个办法是制止更多的超额预约。我们可以自己减少选择,将任务委派给其他人,甚至放弃一些点子,让其他人去做。他用婚姻作为例子:“在婚姻中,我们承诺不保留选择机会,我们就创造了获得最佳选择的有利局面。我们关上可选择的门,并告诉别人我们已作出选择。”

Para.11

Since conducting the door experiment, Dr. Ariely says he has made a conscious effort to lessen his load. He urges the rest of us to resign from committees, prune holiday card lists, rethink hobbies and remember the lessons of door closers like Xiang Yu.

阿雷利博士说,自从进行了这个点击门的实验,他已经有意识地努力减轻自己的负担。他敦促我们辞去委员会的工作,删减送节日贺卡的名单,重新思考兴趣爱好,并记住像项羽那样的关门者给我们的启示。

Para.12

In other words, Dr. Ariely is encouraging us to discard those things that seem to have outward merit in favor of those things that actually enrich our lives. We are naturally prejudiced to believe that more is better, but Dr. Ariely’s research provides a dose of reality that strongly suggests otherwise.

换言之,他是鼓励我们放弃那些似乎只有表面价值的东西,去追求那些能真正丰富我们生活的东西。我们很自然、很偏执地相信选择越多越好,但阿雷利博士的研究却强有力地告诉我们事实并非如此。

Para.13

What price do we pay for trying to have more and more in life? What pleasure and satisfaction can be derived from focusing our energy and attention in a more concentrated fashion? Surely, we will have our respective answers.

我们想在生活中得到越来越多选择的代价是什么?我们能从更集中的精力和注意力中获得什么样的喜悦和满足?当然,我们每个人都会有自己的答案。

Para.14

Consider these important questions: Will we have more by always increasing options or will we have more with fewer, carefully chosen options? What doors should we close in order to allow the right windows of opportunity and happiness to open?

试想一下这些重要的问题:怎么做会使我们获得更多,是不断增加选择,还是只保持少数精心挑选的选择?我们应关闭什么门,以便让机会和幸福之窗打开?

B

When enough is enough

知足常乐

图片

Para.1

Recently, I rushed into a Gap store to buy a pair of jeans. A salesperson asked if she could help. “I want a pair of jeans — 32-28,” I said in haste.

不久前,我冲进一家 Gap 店去买一条牛仔裤。店员问我是否要她帮忙。“我想要一条牛仔裤,32-28码的,”我匆匆地说。

Para.2

“Do you want slim fit, easy fit, relaxed fit, baggy, or extra baggy?” she ventured. “Do you want stone-washed, acid-washed, button-fly or regular-fly, faded or regular?”

“您想要紧身的,合身的,休闲的,宽松的,还是特大宽松的?”她试探地问道。“您想要石磨的还是漂染的?纽扣门襟还是拉链门襟?褪色的还是普通的?”

Para.3

I stopped. I didn’t have a hint, not the remotest idea of what she had asked, so I said, “I just want regular jeans. You know - the kind that used to be the only kind.”

我停了下来。我在她所问的问题中没得到任何暗示,也对这些问题毫无所知,所以我说:“我只想买一条普通的牛仔裤。你知道的,曾经是唯一的那种。”

Para.4

She pointed in the right direction. The trouble was, with all those options distributed in front of me, I wasn’t sure what I wanted. So, I tried on pair after pair of jeans for almost two hours - trying to decide. It wasn’t a big decision, little depended on my choice, but I was convinced that one pair had to be just right for me.

她指了指找得到我要的那种牛仔裤的地方。麻烦的是,看着所有摆在我面前的牛仔裤,我不知该选哪一条。于是,为了作出选择,我就一条一条地试穿,足足试了将近两个小时。这并不是一项重大的决定,也并不取决于我的选择,但我确信,有一条牛仔裤必定适合我。

Para.5

The jeans I chose were fine, but this simple transaction provoked a strong reaction in me. Buying a new pair of pants shouldn’t render someone a wreck! Purchasing jeans was once an easy choice; now it’s become a complex decision.

我选择的牛仔裤还不错,但这桩简单的买卖却引起了我强烈的反应。买一条新裤子不应该让人感到疲惫不堪的!购买牛仔裤曾经是一件很容易的事,现在它却变成了一个复杂的决策过程。

Para.6

Choices in modern life have increased tremendously. A typical store in 1900 had only a few dozen categories with one or two options per category. Modern supermarkets have 50,000 to 60,000 items in thousands of categories. Looking for hair-care products? There are more than 350 types of shampoo and conditioners. Need a painkiller? There are almost 100 options. Toothpaste, anyone? You have 40+ types to choose from!

现代生活中的选择已大幅增加。1900 年的时候,一个商店一般只有几十种类别,每种类别只有一到两种选择。现代的超市在几千种类别里,有 50,000 至 60,000 件物品。寻找护发产品吗?有超过 350 种的洗发水和护发素。需要止痛药吗?有近 100 个选项。有人要牙膏吗?你有 40 多种可选择!

Para.7

It’s true that enforced restrictions with very limited or no choices make life unbearable, and having options does increase our sense of liberation and control. However, my jeans purchase highlights a different problem. As options increase out of control, people often begin to feel their life is crashing down on them. They are overloaded, overwhelmed and feel their life growing vacant without meaning.

确实,在强行限制的生活中,非常有限的选择或毫无选择让人难以忍受,而有选择无疑可增加我们的自由感和控制感。然而,我购买牛仔裤的经历却突显了一个不同的问题。随着选择失控般地增加,人们常常开始感到他们的生活正在崩溃。他们不堪重负,不知所措,觉得他们的生活在变得空虚而没有意义。

Para.8

We all rely on common sense to guide us, and the implication is that increasing choice should always increase happiness. Surprisingly, the opposite is true. Scientists verify that an overabundance of choice tends to bring a subtraction in well-being and happiness.

我们都靠常识来指导我们,常识告诉我们越来越多的选择应不断增加幸福感。令人惊讶的是,事实正好相反。科学家证实,过多的选择往往会削弱我们的健康和快乐。

Para.9

The measure of happiness in the US has been going downhill. The proportion of the population describing itself as “very happy” has declined by five percent, approximately 14 million Americans.

在美国,人们的幸福感已经下滑。认为自己“非常高兴”的人口比例已下降 5%,将近一千四百万人。

Para.10

Of course, no one believes that a single factor explains this, but accumulating evidence from psychological research indicates that the explosion of choice and tremendous increases in material possessions play a primary role.

当然,没人相信这可以用单一因素来解释。不过,日益增多的心理学研究证据表明,选择的爆炸性增长和物质财富的大量增加是主要的原因。

Para.11

Increasing expectations seem to be part of the problem. The penetrating message of modern times seems to be: “The more we control our own fate, the more we expect to control it. The more we have, the more we want to have!” We expect to be able to have a life that is fulfilling, exciting and sometimes even selfish! We transfer our high expectations to our property, our residences, and our families - expecting them to be outstanding and beautiful.

不断增加的期望值似乎也是问题的一部分。现代社会的精辟言论似乎是:“我们越控制我们自己的命运,我们就越希望控制它。我们拥有的越多,我们想要的就更多!”我们期望我们的生活充实、令人兴奋,有时甚至是自私的!我们把高度期望转移到了我们的财产、我们的住房和我们的家庭——希望他们都出色、漂亮。

Para.12

Some people believe they should never have to settle for things that are just “good enough”. Their trademark is that they expect and accept only the best. Researchers call this group “maximizers”. Their thoughts are dominated by an ever-increasing desire for more and a focus on the highest quality. Studies show that maximizers are less optimistic, more dissatisfied with, and more depressed about their lives than others who are willing to settle for slightly less.

有些人认为,他们决不应该接受只是“足够好”。他们的特征是只要和只接受最好的。研究人员称这一组人为“最大化追求者”。他们的思想被日益膨胀的意愿所支配:希望得到更多和注重最高质量。研究表明,与那些愿意接受少一点的人相比,最大化追求者对他们的生活不那么乐观,也有更多的不满和更多的压抑。

Para.13

I have a friend who makes going out to dinner a nightmare. He struggles to select a dish, going in a circular motion between one option and another, trying to find the best option. Some students behave the same way looking for jobs as they worry excessively concerning which job option to choose lest they overlook the “perfect” job!

我有一个朋友把出去吃晚餐变成了一场噩梦。他会为了决定挑选哪一道菜而冥思苦想,在选项之间不断绕圈子,想找到最佳选择。有些学生在寻找工作时也是一样,因为他们过分地担心该选择哪一份工作,唯恐忽视了那份“完美”的工作!

Para.14

We are told we’re in the “driver’s seat”, when it comes to organizing and planning our lives. If we fail, it’s our own fault and can only accuse ourselves. It is unhealthy to combine overwhelming expectations and options, plus a tendency to blame ourselves for failures.

说到组织和规划我们的生活,我们被告知我们是坐在“驾驶座”上。如果我们失败了,这是我们自己的过错,只能指责自己。过多的期望和过多的选择,加上总是把失败归咎于自己,对我们是有害、不利的。

Para.15

The success of 21st-century life turns out to be a bitter-sweet controversy and paradox. People have what they say they want. They’re floating in a vast ocean of choices and material goods but finding they’re still unfulfilled. Enough is never enough.

二十一世纪生活的成功变成了一个苦乐参半的争议和悖论。人们有了他们自己说想要的东西。他们正漂浮在一个充满选择和物质产品的汪洋大海里,但他们仍不满足。够了永远都不够。

Para.16

Let’s pause and angle a bright light from the past into our modern times. Over 2,000 years ago, the famous Chinese philosopher, Lao Tzu, prescribed: “Be content with whatsoever you have; rejoice in the way things are. When you realize there is nothing lacking, the whole world belongs to you. And he added this precaution: He who knows that enough is enough will always have enough.

让我们稍作停顿,把过去的一盏明灯转照到我们现代。两千年前,中国著名的哲学家老子指出:“知足不辱,知止不殆,可以长久。”他补充了这个警示:知足者常乐。

Para.17

Use your college years to stir your heart and renew your life. Withstand the pressure of too many choices to acquire more than you need. Specify what truly matters to you and what does not. Learn when enough is enough, and you will trace a path of contentment throughout your life.

用你的大学四年激活你的心扉,更新你的生活。不要为了追求自己不需要的而去做过多的选择。明确自己真正在意和不在意的是什么。学会知足常乐,这样你的一生都会常乐久安。

Unit 7

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
administrative/əd’mɪnɪstrətɪv/adj. 管理的,行政的
administrative assistant/n/行政助理
attorney/ə’tɜːnɪ/n. 律师;代理人;检察官
employee/ɪmˈplɔɪi;ˌemplɔɪˈi:/n.雇员,受雇者
accommodation/əkɒmə’deɪʃ(ə)n/n. 住处工作场所;膳宿;迁就,通融,调和,调节,和解;预订铺位
segment/‘segm(ə)nt/n. 段;部分;(桔子)瓣;vt. 分割;剥桔子(使桔子分瓣);vi. 分割
tolerance/‘tɒl(ə)r(ə)ns/n.忍受,宽容,容忍;(对痛苦、困难等的)忍耐力,忍受程度;公差
dispose/dɪ’spəʊz/n. 处置;性情;vt. 处理;处置;安排;vi. 处理;安排;(能够)决定
disposed/dɪ’spəʊzd/adj. 有…倾向的;打算做…的;有某种健康状态的
sector/‘sektə/n. (尤指商业、贸易等的)部门,行业;扇形,扇区;象限仪;函数尺;vt. 把…分成扇形
public sector/ n/公营部门,国营部门
precede/prɪ’siːd/vt. 领先,在…之前,先于…(发生或存在);优于,高于;vi. 领先,在前面
mumps/mʌmps/n. [内科] 流行性腮腺炎;愠怒;生气
flourish/‘flʌrɪʃ/n. 兴旺;茂盛;挥舞;炫耀;华饰;vt. 夸耀;挥舞;vi. 繁荣,兴旺;茂盛;活跃;处于旺盛时期
bystander/‘baɪstændə/n.旁观者,局外人,看热闹的人
harness/‘hɑːnɪs/n. 马具;甲胄;挽具状带子;降落伞背带;日常工作;vt. 治理;套;驾驭;披上甲胄;利用
symbolic/sɪm’bɒlɪk/adj. 象征的;符号的;使用符号的
plausible/‘plɔːzɪb(ə)l/adj. 貌似可信的,花言巧语的;貌似真实的,貌似有理的
hierarchical/haɪə’rɑːkɪk(ə)l/adj. 分层的;等级体系的;按等级划分的
diplomatic/dɪplə’mætɪk/adj.讲究手腕的,灵活变通的;老练的;外交的,从事外交工作的
diplomatically/,dɪplə’mætɪkli/adv. 在外交上;靠外交途径;圆滑地;婉转地;讲究手腕地,灵活变通地
discrimination/dɪ,skrɪmɪ’neɪʃ(ə)n/n. 歧视;区别,辨别;识别力
petroleum/pə’trəʊlɪəm/n.石油
export/ˈekspɔːt;ɪkˈ-/n. 输出,出口;出口商品;vt. 输出,出口;vi. 输出物资
acre/‘eɪkə/n. 土地,地产;英亩
county/‘kaʊntɪ/n.(英国)郡,(美国)县
erect/ɪ’rekt/vt. 使竖立;建造;安装;vi. 直立;勃起;adj. 竖立的;笔直的;因性刺激而勃起的
cashier/kæˈʃɪə(r)/n. 出纳员;司库;收银员;vt. 解雇;抛弃
auction/‘ɔːkʃ(ə)n/n. 拍卖;vt. 拍卖;竞卖
concession/kən’seʃ(ə)n/n. 妥协,迎合,让步;特许(权);承认;退位
marine/mə’riːn/n. 海运业;舰队;水兵;(英国/美国)海军陆战队士兵;adj. 船舶的;海生的;海产的;航海的,海运的
extent/ɪk’stent; ek-/n. 程度;范围,限度;长度
vice-/vaɪs/prefix 表示“副”(用于高级职位的名称前,表示仅次于这个职位的职位)【vice n. 恶习;缺点;[机] 老虎钳;卖淫;vt. 钳住;adj. 副的;代替的;prep. 代替】
weapon/‘wep(ə)n/n. 武器,兵器,凶器
infer/ɪn’fɜː/vt. (根据资料)推断;推论;vi. 推断;作出推论
violate/‘vaɪəleɪt/vt. 违反;侵犯,妨碍,侵害;亵渎;打扰;违背
valid/‘vælɪd/adj. 有效的;有根据的;合法的;正当的;令人信服的;正式认可的
offense/ə’fɛns/n. 犯罪,过错;进攻;触怒,得罪,冒犯行为,引起反感的事物
veil/veɪl/n. 面纱;面罩;遮蔽物;托词;vt. 遮蔽;掩饰;以面纱遮掩;用帷幕分隔;vi. 蒙上面纱;出现轻度灰雾
compose/kəm’pəʊz/vt. 构成;写作;使平静,镇静;排…的版;vi. 组成;作曲;排字
composed/kəm’pəʊzd/adj. 镇静的;沉着的
headquarters/hed’kwɔːtəz/n.总部,总公司,总办事处
identical/aɪ’dentɪk(ə)l/n. 完全相同的事物;adj. 同一的;完全相同的;非常相似的
cooperative/kəʊ’ɒpərətɪv/n. 合作社;adj. 合作的;合作社的
context/‘kɒntekst/n. 上下文,语境;场合,周围情况,环境,背景;来龙去脉
scan/skæn/n. 扫描;浏览;审视;细看;vt. 扫描;浏览;细看;详细调查;标出格律;vi. 扫描;扫掠
dispute/dɪ’spjuːt; ‘dɪspjuːt/n. 辩争论,辩论,争端,纠纷;vt. 辩论;怀疑;阻止;抗拒;vi. 争论
consultant/kən’sʌlt(ə)nt/n. 顾问;咨询者;会诊医生
vague/veɪg/adj. 模糊的;含糊的;不明确的;暧昧的
vaguely/‘veɪglɪ/adv. 稍微,有点;模模糊糊地,不明确地,含糊地;暧昧地;茫然地
domestic/də’mestɪk/n. 国货;佣人;adj. 国内的;家庭的;驯养的;一心只管家务的
disgusting/dɪs’gʌstɪŋ/adj. 令人恶心的,使人极其反感的,令人厌恶的
condemn/kən’dem/vt. 谴责;判刑,定罪;声讨
duration/djʊ’reɪʃ(ə)n/n. 持续,持续的时间,期间;[语音学]音长,音延
crawl/krɔːl/n. 爬行;养鱼池;匍匐而行;vt. 爬行;缓慢地行;vi. 爬行;匍匐行进
calendar/‘kælɪndə/n. 日历,挂历;[天] 历法;日程表;vt. 将…列入表中;将…排入日程表
overflow/əʊvə’fləʊ/n. 充满,洋溢;泛滥;超值;溢值;vt. 使溢出;使泛滥;使充溢;vi. 溢出;泛滥;充溢
fuss/fʌs/n. 大惊小怪,大惊小怪的人;小题大作;忙乱;vt. 使烦恼,使烦忧;vi. 小题大作;忙乱;焦燥;焦急;无事自扰
compound/‘kɒmpaʊnd/n. [化学] 化合物;混合物;复合词;vt. 合成;混合;恶化,加重;和解,妥协;adj. 复合的;混合的
conscience/‘kɒnʃ(ə)ns/n. 道德心,良心,良知
wrinkle/‘rɪŋkl/n. 皱纹;vt. 使起皱纹;vi. 起皱
wrinkled/‘rɪŋkld/adj.(皮肤或布料)有皱纹的,有褶皱的
grind/graɪnd/n. 磨;苦工作;vt. 磨碎,碾碎,把…磨成粉;磨快;vi. 磨碎;折磨
yawn/jɔːn/n. 哈欠;裂口;vt. 张开;打著哈欠说;vi. 打哈欠;裂开
therapy/‘θerəpɪ/n. 治疗,疗法
fragment/‘frægm(ə)nt/n. 碎片,碎块;片段或不完整部分;vt. 使成碎片;vi. 破碎或裂开
detail/‘diːteɪl/n. 细节,细微之处;详情;vt. 详述;选派;vi. 画详图
joint/dʒɒɪnt/n. 关节;接缝;接合处,接合点;(牛,羊等的腿)大块肉;夜总会;vt. 连接,贴合;接合;使有接头;vi. 贴合;生节;adj. 共同的;连接的;联合的,合办的;合资的
convert/kən’vɜːt/n. 皈依者;改变宗教信仰者;vt. 使转变;转换…;使…改变信仰;vi. 转变,变换;皈依;改变信仰,(convert to)改变(观点、原则或做事方式);
comprise/kəm’praɪz/vt. 包含;由…组成
vacuum/‘vækjʊəm/n. 真空;空间;真空吸尘器;vt. 用真空吸尘器清扫;adj. 真空的;利用真空的;产生真空的
interior/ɪn’tɪɜːrɪə/n. 内部;本质;adj. 内部的,里面的;室内的;国内的;本质的
lawn/lɔːn/n. 草地;草坪
journalism/‘dʒɜːn(ə)lɪz(ə)m/n. 新闻业,新闻工作;报章杂志
resemble/rɪ’zemb(ə)l/vt.像,与…类似,与…相似
ounce/aʊns/n. 盎司(1盎司=28.35克,1磅=16盎司),英两;少量;雪豹
oven/ˈʌvn/n. 炉,灶;烤炉,烤箱
protein/‘prəʊtiːn/n. 蛋白质;朊;adj. 蛋白质的
couch/kaʊtʃ/n. 睡椅,长沙发;床;卧榻;vt. 使躺下;表达;弯下;vi. 蹲伏,埋伏;躺着
bounce/baʊns/n. 跳;弹力;活力;vt. 弹跳;使弹起;vi. 弹跳;弹起,反跳;弹回
democratic/demə’krætɪk/adj. 民主的;民主政治的;大众的
democratically/,dɛmə’krætɪkli/adv. 民主地;民主主义地
trim/trɪm/n. 修剪;整齐;情形;vt. 修剪;整理;装点;vi. 削减;adj. 整齐的
tolerate/‘tɒləreɪt/vt. 忍受;默许;宽恕
episode/‘epɪsəʊd/n. 插曲;一段情节;(电视剧或广播剧的)集;插话;有趣的事件;一段经历,一段时期
periodical/pɪərɪ’ɒdɪk(ə)l/n. 期刊;杂志;adj. [数] 周期的;定期的
supplement/‘sʌplɪm(ə)nt/n. 增补,补充;补充物;增刊,副刊;vt. 增补,补充
overseas/əʊvə’siːz/adj.来自海外的,在国外的,发生在国外的;adv.向国外,在海外,在外国
exert/ɪg’zɜːt; eg-/vt. 运用,发挥;施以影响;(exert oneself)竭力,努力
substitute/‘sʌbstɪtjuːt/n. 代用品;代替者;vt. 用(新的、不同的事物)代替;vi. 替代
oppress/ə’pres/vt. 压迫,压抑;使……烦恼;使……感到沉重
revolt/rɪ’vəʊlt/n. 反抗;叛乱;反感;vt. 使反感,使震惊;使恶心;vi. 反抗;反叛;反感,厌恶
setting/‘setɪŋ/n. 环境,背景;安装;布置;[天] 沉落
swear/sweə/n. 宣誓;诅咒;vt. 发誓;咒骂;vi. 发誓,宣誓,保证,郑重声明(自己说的是真话);诅咒
dignity/‘dɪgnɪtɪ/n. 尊严;高贵;庄重;体面

Phrases and expressions

  1. be disposed to do sth. 愿意做某事,乐于做某事
  2. on both counts 在两个方面
  3. take over 接管,接任,接受
  4. take a liberty / liberties with sb. 与某人相处时太放肆
  5. feel at ease with sb. (与某人在一起)感到放松,不拘束
  6. make a concession / concessions to 为对某事或某种想法取得一致意见做妥协
  7. to some extent 在某种程度上
  8. come down to 归结为
  9. burst into 突然迸发(尤指开始唱歌、哭、笑等)
  10. take exception to sth. 因某事而生气(烦恼)
  11. stem from 源于,来自,由于…发生
  12. heat up 加热,使变热
  13. busy oneself with 使自己忙于某事
  14. crawl into/out of bed 劳累地爬上床/爬下床
  15. overflow with 满是,有许多
  16. fuss over (为小事)紧张不安,大惊小怪
  17. not in all / good conscience 凭良心不能做某事(因认为它是错的)
  18. think of sb. / sth. as 认为(是),以为(是),觉得(是)
  19. be comprised of 包括,由…构成
  20. an ounce of 略有
  21. be unique in (在某方面)独一无二,独特
  22. substitute sth. for sth. 用…代替…,替换…
  23. give sb. (a) five 与某人击掌(表示对某事很满意)

Articles

A

Women at the management level

女性管理者

图片

Para.1

When Monica applied for a job as an administrative assistant in 1971, she was asked whether she would rather work for a male or a female attorney. “I immediately said a man,” she says. “I felt that a male-boss / female-employee relationship was more natural, needing no personal accommodation whatsoever.” But 20 years later, when she was asked the same question, she said, “I was pleasantly surprised that female bosses are much more accessible to their employees; they’re much more sensitive and intimate with their employees.”

当莫妮卡 1971 年申请一个行政助理的工作时,有人问她想与男律师共事还是与女律师共事。“我马上说想与男律师共事,”她说。“我认为男老板和女雇员的关系更自然,丝毫不需互相调整。”但 20 年后,有人问她同样的问题时,她说:“令我感到惊喜的是,对员工来说,女上司更容易接近,她们更能理解人,与员工更亲密。”

Para.2

Female bosses today are still finding they face subtle resistance. There is still a segment of the population, both men and, surprisingly, women who report low tolerance for female bosses. The growing presence of female bosses has also provoked two major questions that revolve around styles: Do men and women manage differently, and, if so, is that a good thing?

今天的女上司仍然发现,她们面临着不易察觉的阻力。还是有一部分人——有男性,令人惊讶的是还有女性——说很难忍受为女性工作。女上司的不断涌现,也引出了与工作方式有关的两个主要问题:男人和女人管理风格不同吗?如果有不同,是一件好事吗?

Para.3

Monica is disposed to think so, on both counts. Now a 40-year-old mother of four, she is president of a public sector labor union with 45,000 members. “Relations with my employees are probably different from those of male managers preceding me,” she says. “I know what it’s like to have to call and say my kid got the mumps so I won’t be coming in. I have a more flexible style - not soft, just more understanding.” The man who is Monica’s assistant agrees, “She tends to delegate more and is always looking for a consensus. People are happy and flourish because they have an input into decisions and they are not mere bystanders; their energies are harnessed. On the other hand, consensus takes longer.”

莫妮卡对这两个问题都持肯定的意见。莫妮卡现在 40 岁,有四个孩子,并且是一位拥有 45,000 名成员的公共部门工会的主席。“我与员工的关系可能跟在我之前的前任男性主管不同,”她说。“我知道当有人不得不打电话来说孩子得了腮腺炎而不能来上班是一种什么样的状况。我的风格更灵活,这不是软弱,只是多了一点理解。”莫妮卡的男助理表示赞成:“她往往放权更多,并总是寻求共识。大家都很开心,也有成就感,因为他们参与了决策,而不是单纯的旁观者。他们的能量得到了利用。当然从另一方面看,通过协商而达成一致意见需要的时间要长一些。”

Para.4

So, are the differences symbolic or real? Plausible studies suggest that men are typically hierarchical, goal-oriented and feel entitled. Women, by contrast, manage diplomatically, and share power. That point of view is often challenged and argued. Some proclaim that men and women of similar backgrounds, experience and aspirations basically manage in the same way. This view is echoed by younger women, especially those who have encountered little gender discrimination. That was certainly the lesson for Nicole. When her father died of a heart attack, she was an employee at a petroleum products export company. She quit and took over her family’s 160-acre fruit farm in St. Davids County. On her first day in the field, a worker called her “darling”. “He was trying to test me. I was shaking with anger,” says Nicole, now 34. “I stood erect and said, ‘You wouldn’t have called my father darling and you’re not going to take that liberty with me. If you do, I’ll fire you.’”

那么,这种差异是象征性的还是实质性的呢?可靠的研究指出,男人通常有等级观念,以目标为导向,喜欢有权力的感觉。相反,女人则是灵活变通的,愿意分享权力。这一观点往往受到质疑和争论。有人宣称,有类似的背景、经验和抱负的男女,基本上管理方式相同。那些年轻女性,特别是很少遭受性别歧视的女性,也是这样认为的。妮可尔无疑从中得到了教训。当她的父亲因心脏病去世时,她是一家石油产品出口公司的雇员。她辞了职,接管了她家在圣大卫县 160 英亩的果园。她第一天出现在果园时,一名工人称她为“亲爱的”。“他是想试探我。我气得发抖,”现年 34 岁的妮可尔说。“我挺直腰板站在那里跟他说:‘你不会称我父亲亲爱的,所以你也没有权利这样称呼我。如果你再这样做,我会解雇你。’”

Para.5

When women work for women, a different dynamic often takes over. Susan, a cashier in a Toronto auction house, says that she has explored friendships with some of her female bosses and feels she can rely on them more. While women may feel more at ease with a female boss, men often have to make concessions to the new working styles. Brian, a marine biologist, says, “It took me a couple of years before I felt comfortable enough to relax around a female manager. In fact, my relations with her were much more businesslike.”

当女性为女上司工作时,往往会用一种不同的工作和交流方式。苏珊是多伦多一家拍卖行的收银员,她说,她与一些女上司建立起了友谊,她感到她们更能够依靠。虽然女性可能会觉得与女上司相处时更自然,男性却往往不得不作出改变以适应女上司新的工作方式。海洋生物学家布赖恩说:“我花了几年时间才能在与女经理共事时感到轻松自如。事实上,之前我与她的关系更多只是一种务实的工作关系。”

Para.6

To some extent, the male-female differences come down to conflicting styles. One female vice-president discussed the time she burst into tears during a meeting. “Men think that tears are a nuclear weapon in a conventional war. They take exception to a woman crying, inferring that she’s feeling unhappy or violated.” The men failed to understand that what prompted her tears was not hurt but genuine rage. “When we cry, it’s because we have all this valid rage that has no appropriate release.” she says. “Women cry; men get relief by going on with the offense or by veiling their feelings to appear composed.”

从某种程度上说,男女之间的差异归根结底是工作方式的冲突。一位女副总裁谈到她在一次会议上忍不住落泪的经历时说:“男人认为女人的眼泪就是常规战争中的核武器。他们对女人的哭泣很不满,认为她们是感觉不愉快或受到了侵犯。”男人不明白,促使她掉泪的不是因为受到伤害,而是真正的愤怒。“我们哭泣是因为我们所有这一切合理的愤怒没有适当的地方释放,”她说。“女人通过哭来释放情绪,男人通过继续冒犯或掩盖自己的情绪以显示镇定自若来释放情绪。”

Para.7

Deborah, president of a firm with its headquarters in Toronto, says that even if men do understand, they sometimes react differently to the identical information and to her cooperative management style.

德博拉是一家总部在多伦多的公司的总裁,她表示,即使男人明白是怎么回事,有时他们对同样的信息、对她的合作型管理风格也会有不同的反应。

Para.8

Deborah says that her authority is sometimes undermined by perceptions about her gender. “It stems from the whole social context of traditional roles for men and women, she says.” Mom would tell you to do things, but perhaps you wouldn’t take as much notice as when Dad told you to do things. Men also have a stronger urge to control,” she says.

德博拉说,她的权威有时因性别观念作祟而受到损害。“这源于整个社会对男性和女性的传统角色的界定。”她说,“妈妈会让你做事情,但也许你不会像爸爸让你做事情那样在意。男人也有更强的控制欲。”她说。

Para.9

For female bosses, the great expectation of some female employees is one more obstacle. Junior women assume a female boss will promote them more quickly than a man would. But, they also expect female bosses to be more self-sufficient. ‘They ask, ‘Why can’t you scan your own stuff?’ or ‘Why can’t you do your own filing?’” says one senior female executive.

对女上司来说,一些女员工过高的期望是另一个障碍。职位较低的女员工认为女上司会比男上司更迅速地提拔她们。但是,她们也希望女上司能揽下更多的事。一位资深的女主管说:“她们会问,‘为什么你不能自己扫描文件?’或‘为什么你不能自己整理文件?’”

Para.10

On the other hand, there is no dispute that a few decades ago they would rarely have had a female boss in the workplace. Nina, a management consultant says she’s vaguely optimistic. “I’m looking forward to the day, before I die, when we recognize that the best management styles will be composed of the best that both genders bring to the table …” Well, she pauses, maybe not before she dies, perhaps in her daughter’s lifetime.

另一方面,几十年前人们工作的地方几乎不可能有女上司,这一点毫无争议。管理顾问尼娜说自己审慎乐观。“我期待某一天,在我临死之前,我们会意识到最好的管理风格是由男女双方带来的最佳组合……”嗯,她停顿了一下,可能不是在她去世之前,也许在她女儿的有生之年会实现吧。

B

A proud homemaker

一个自豪的家庭主妇

图片Para.1

When hearing the word housewife, what comes to your mind? For many people, it’s a picture of domestic discontent. Critics of the housewife style in the 1950s seem to find it disgusting that a woman should make it her life’s work to raise children, clean dishes, and make homemade meals, creating a healthy, happy home. Are we so afraid of going backward that we’re too quick to condemn a different lifestyle?

当听到“家庭主妇”这个词时,你想到的是什么?对许多人而言,“家庭主妇”的形象就是对家务琐事充满抱怨不满。19 世纪 50 年代的家庭主妇毕生的工作就是养孩子,洗盘子,做饭,创建一个健康、快乐的家庭,批评家对这样的生活极其反感。我们是不是因为太害怕倒退而过快地去谴责不同的生活方式呢?

Para.2

I remember my own working days before I settled down as a full-time homemaker. For the duration of time that I was working full time, I came home late, heated up a prepackaged dinner for my family, and busied myself with housework until crawling into bed each night, exhausted. My calendar overflowed with little quality time for family or myself. I experienced the same situation growing up in a household with two working parents. My childhood was spent fussing over daily household tasks, trying to keep control before all the work could be compounded and get out of control. I appreciate my parents’ hard work, but a childhood only lasts a short while before it’s gone forever. I can’t in good conscience let my children look back and wish we had spent less time folding wrinkled clothes and more time together as a family.

我记得我自己工作的那会儿,那是在我安心当全职家庭主妇以前的事。在我干全职工作的那段期间,我回家很晚,为我的家人加热了包装食品作为晚餐后,就忙于家务,每天晚上直到疲惫不堪才爬上床。我的日程表排得满满的,几乎没有全心照顾家人或自己的宝贵时间。我生长在一个父母是双职工的家庭,所以我的成长经历了类似的情况。为努力使情况不恶化或失控,我的童年是在紧张忙碌的家庭事务中度过的。我感谢我父母的辛劳,但童年只是人生一个瞬间,一去不复返。扪心自问,我不能让我的孩子们回头看时,后悔当初没有少花点时间折叠打皱的衣服,而有更多的时间陪伴家人就好了。

Para.3

From my time in the workforce, I know how tiring and stressful a 9 to 5 grind can be. I love being able to support my husband when he comes home from work, yawning and exhausted. I get extra joy knowing that arriving to a clean, relaxing house and haying a delicious meal are therapy for his stress. Even more importantly, he did many fragments of my job when I was away on business trips: He took care of the house, the children and every detail. So, he knows that my job as a housewife is a tough, demanding 24/7 job. This joint understanding and respect makes our current arrangement a joy to live with and a good example for our children.

在我工作的那段时间,我了解到朝九晚五的苦差事是何等劳累和紧张。我很高兴在我的丈夫打着呵欠、疲惫不堪地下班回家时能给他支持。当我知道回到一个干净舒适的家和吃上美味佳肴能舒缓他的压力时,我感到格外的喜悦。更重要的是,当我之前出差离家时,他帮我做过许多零碎的家务:照料房子、照看孩子、关注一切细枝末节。正因为此,他了解到家庭主妇是一个要每周干 7 天每天干 24 小时的艰苦且要求高的工作。这种共同的理解和尊重,使我们目前的生活充满了喜悦,也为我们的孩子树立了一个很好的榜样。

Para.4

When I first converted to being a housewife, unemployment was embarrassing. However, now I know it’s wrong to think of a housewife as anything but challenging and important. My daily life is comprised of making breakfast, lunch, and dinner for my family, vacuuming the interior of the household, doing laundry and dishes, taking care of the lawn and garden, and working on my journalism skills. My life resembles the 1950s conservative housewife in the modern world, but I don’t feel an ounce of discontent. Cooking, for example, is one of my passions, and I can include hobby into my daily life. Every day, I reject packaged meals full of preservatives and unhealthy ingredients in favor of good, oven-cooked vegetables and protein. I enjoy the process of cooking as well as the result. My loved ones have more energy, better moods, and we’ve lost some weight in the process. Furthermore, I finish my work early and can spend time in the evenings sitting on the couch talking with my family or playing board games rather than bouncing around cleaning.

当刚开始转换角色成为家庭主妇时,我感到了失业的尴尬。不过,现在我知道那种认为家庭主妇的工作一点都不具挑战性和重要性的想法是大错特错的。我的日常生活包括为我的家人准备早餐、午餐和晚餐,打扫房间,洗衣服,刷碗,照料草坪和花园,并努力提高新闻工作所需的技能。我的生活就像现代版的 20 世纪 50 年代保守家庭主妇的生活,但我不觉得有丝毫不满。例如,烹饪是我所热衷的,我可以把业余爱好用到我的日常生活中。每天,我拒绝使用含防腐剂和不健康成分的包装食物,而是做健康的、用炉子烧熟的蔬菜和蛋白质食物。我喜欢烹饪的过程,也享受自己做的菜。我的亲人有更多的精力,更好的心情,在此过程中,我们的体重也有所下降。此外,我早早地完成了我的工作后,就可以在晚上有时间坐在沙发上与我的家人说话或玩棋盘游戏,而不是跳上跳下地做清洁工作。

Para.5

Of course, I don’t receive an income for my hours of hard work, but my husband and I are a team, and we decided democratically that we would rather enjoy living a life with more family time and less money. We’ve had to trim the unnecessary things and learn to tolerate living without. Trying to explain the difference of income and lifestyle to our children was a particularly difficult episode. Fortunately, I have kept a part-time job writing for medical periodicals to supplement our income.

当然,我的辛勤工作没有任何收入,但我和我丈夫是一个团队,我们通过协商决定,我们宁愿少一点钱,但要与家人有多一点在一起的时间享受生活。我们已削减了不必要的开支,学习忍受没有丰富物质的生活。给孩子们解释收入降低和生活方式改变是件特别困难的事。幸运的是,我还保留了一份给医学期刊撰稿的兼职工作,用来贴补我们的收入。

Para.6

Some critics of our lifestyle think that I’m unique in enjoying my home life, but it’s not the case. Overseas, millions of people work from home while still caring for the family. Women in Europe and Asia exert themselves to have a career and still love being housewives. It’s becoming too common to substitute “househusbands” for “housewives” around the world as more women join the workforce.

一些批评我们这种生活方式的人们认为,我享受这种家庭生活只是个个例,但事实并非如此。海外数以百万计的人在家工作的同时,还照顾着家庭。欧洲和亚洲的妇女奋发向上,她们有事业,但仍然喜爱当家庭主妇。在世界各地,随着更多的妇女成为职业女性,“家庭主夫”替代“家庭主妇”这一现象变得极其普通。

Para.7

Why is it so common to think that women are oppressed and discontented when working to provide for their families’ happiness? Must everyone receive happiness in the same way, working long hours outside the home? I am revolted by the notion that I must be depressed or unfulfilled because my husband and I have chosen to live in a more old-fashioned setting. I don’t suggest that this is the only way, or even the best way, to manage every family. However, I swear that it’s the best lifestyle for me and my family. Every day, I work harder than I did at my old job and I find that I have more happiness and dignity than I did before. Consider this: In the future, when a woman answers that she is a housewife, you should avoid discrimination and give her a high five instead of showing pity or giving her a boring glance.

为什么这么多人认为,妇女在为她们的家庭幸福而工作时,一定是受到压制和感到不满的呢?每个人都必须以同样的方式——在外面工作很长时间——来获得幸福吗?有人认为我肯定很压抑或没有成就感,因为我丈夫和我选择了一种更过时的生活方式,这样的想法让我感到很震惊。我不是在暗示这是经营家庭的唯一的方法,我更不是说这是最好的方式。不过,我发誓,对我和我的家庭来说这是最好的生活方式。我日益努力,也发现自己比以前更幸福,更有尊严。记住,以后当一个女人回答她是一位家庭主妇时,你不应歧视她,要与她击掌喝彩,而不要显露怜悯之情或以无趣的眼光看她。

Unit 8

New Words

New WordsPhonetic symbolsChinese
rumor/ˈruːmə/n. 谣言;传闻;vt. 谣传;传说
sting/stɪŋ/n. 刺痛;讽刺,刺激;刺毛;vt. 刺;驱使;使…苦恼;使…疼痛;vi. 刺痛;被刺痛;感到剧痛
evil/‘iːv(ə)l; -vɪl/n. 罪恶,邪恶;不幸;祸害;adj. 邪恶的;不幸的;有害的;讨厌的
supreme/suː’priːm/n. 至高;霸权;adj.(程度)最大的,极度的;(权力、重要性或影响力)最高的,至高无上的
residency/‘rezɪd(ə)nsɪ/n.(在某国的)居住权,居留许可;专科住院医生实习期
bloodshed/‘blʌdʃed/n.(尤指战争中的)流血,杀戮
surgical/‘sɜːdʒɪk(ə)l/n. 外科手术;外科病房;adj. 外科的;手术上的
organ/‘ɔːg(ə)n/n. 器官;机构;风琴;管风琴;嗓音;阴茎
transplant/træns’plɑːnt; trɑːns-; -nz-/n. 移植;移植器官;被移植物;移居者;vt. 移植;迁移;使移居;vi. 移植;迁移;移居
transplantation/,trænsplɑːn’teɪʃən/n. 移植;迁移;移民
scale/skeɪl/n. 规模;程度;比例;鳞;刻度;天平;数值范围;vt. 测量;攀登;刮鳞;依比例决定;vi. 衡量;攀登;剥落;生水垢
twis/twɪst/n. 扭曲;拧;扭伤;vt. 捻;拧;扭伤;编织;歪曲;使苦恼;vi. 扭动(身体);弯曲
fable/‘feɪb(ə)l/n. 寓言;无稽之谈;vt. 煞有介事地讲述;虚构;vi. 编寓言;虚构
devil/‘dev(ə)l/n.(尤指基督教中的)魔鬼;撒旦;家伙;恶棍;淘气鬼;冒失鬼;vt. 虐待,折磨;(用扯碎机)扯碎;(替作家,律师等)做助手;抹辣味料烤制或煎煮
compass/‘kʌmpəs/n. 指南针,罗盘;圆规;界限,范围;vt. 包围
senator/‘senətə/n. 参议员;(古罗马的)元老院议员;评议员,理事
lobby/‘lɒbɪ/n. 大厅;休息室;会客室;(旨在对政治家施加影响的)游说;游说议员的团体(政府或有政治权力的人);vt. 对……进行游说;vi. 游说议员
creep/kriːp/n. 爬行;毛骨悚然的感觉;谄媚者;vi. 爬行;蔓延渐渐侵入,逐渐融进;悄悄地小心行进,蹑手蹑脚地移动,慢慢地移动;起鸡皮疙瘩
hatred/‘heɪtrɪd/n. 憎恨;怨恨;敌意
consent/kən’sent/n. 同意;(意见等的)一致;许可,赞成;vi. 同意;赞成;答应
slogan/‘sləʊg(ə)n/n. 标语;呐喊声
external/ɪk’stɜːn(ə)l; ek-/n. 外部;外观;外面;adj. 外部的;表面的;[药] 外用的;外国的;外面的
forum/‘fɔːrəm/n.(人们有机会公开讨论重要话题的)论坛,讨论会;法庭;公开讨论的广场;电视专题讨论节目[ 复数 forums或fora ]
volume/‘vɒljuːm/n. (尤指巨大的或正在增加的)量;体积;卷;音量,(音)响度;大量;册;vt. 把…收集成卷;vi. 成团卷起;adj. 大量的
fling/flɪŋ/n. 掷,抛;嘲弄;急冲;vt. 掷,抛;嘲笑;使陷入;轻蔑地投射;猛动;猛推(某人)(尤指使其摔倒在地);vi. 猛冲,急行
germ/dʒɜːm/n. [植] 胚芽,萌芽;细菌;vi. 萌芽
gang/gæŋ/n. 群;一伙;一组;(青少年)帮派,团伙;vt. 使成群结队;结伙伤害或恐吓某人;vi. 成群结队
eternal/ɪ’tɜːn(ə)l; iː-/adj. 永恒的;不朽的
optional/‘ɒpʃ(ə)n(ə)l/adj. 可选择的,随意的
omit/ə(ʊ)’mɪt/vt. 省略;遗漏;删除;疏忽
imitate/‘ɪmɪteɪt/vt. 模仿(某人的行为、说话、动作等,尤为引人发笑),仿效;仿造,仿制
arrest/ə’rest/n. 逮捕;监禁;vt. 逮捕,拘捕;阻止,抑制;吸引
infection/ɪn’fekʃ(ə)n/n.(由细菌或病毒造成对身体某部位的)感染;传染;影响;传染病
diagnose/‘daɪəgnəʊz; -‘nəʊz/vt. 诊断;断定;vi. 诊断;判断
diagnostic/daɪəg’nɒstɪk/n. 诊断法;诊断结论;adj. 诊断的;判断的;特征的
resolution/rezə’luːʃ(ə)n/n. [物] 分辨率;最终解决方案,(尤指投票后做出的)决议,正式决定;解决;决心
unappreciative/ʌnə’priːʃ(ɪ)ətɪv/adj. 不赏识的;不感激的;不表示赞赏的
combat/‘kɒmbæt; ‘kʌm-/n. (尤指战争中的)战斗;争论;vt. 反对;与…战斗;vi. 战斗;搏斗;adj. 战斗的;为…斗争的
hip/hɪp/n. 臀部;蔷薇果;忧郁;adj. 熟悉内情的;非常时尚的
surgery/‘sɜːdʒ(ə)rɪ/n. 外科;外科手术;手术室;诊疗室
defective/dɪ’fektɪv/n. 有缺陷的人;不完全变化词;adj. 有缺陷的;不完美的,有毛病的
gene/dʒiːn/n. [遗] 基因,遗传因子
synthetic/sɪn’θetɪk/n. 合成物;adj. 综合的;合成的,人造的
infinite/‘ɪnfɪnət/n. 无限;[数] 无穷大;无限的东西(如空间,时间);adj. (空间或时间)无限的,无穷的;无数的;(数量上)极大的
minute/‘mɪnɪt/n. 分,分钟;片刻,一会儿;备忘录,笔记;会议记录;vt. 将…记录下来;adj. 微小的,详细的
creature/‘kriːtʃə/n. 动物,生物;人;创造物
hence/hens/adv. 因此,所以;今后
puppy/‘pʌpɪ/n. 小狗,幼犬
rug/rʌg/n. 小地毯;毛皮地毯;男子假发
rub/rʌb/n. 摩擦,按摩;障碍;磨损处;vt. 擦;摩擦;惹怒;vi. 擦;摩擦;擦破
stain/steɪn/n. (尤指液体形成的)污迹,污点;瑕疵;着色剂;vt. 玷污;败坏;给…着色;vi. 污染;被玷污;被染污
royal/‘rɒɪəl/n. 王室;王室成员;adj. 皇家的;盛大的;女王的;高贵的;第一流的
rotate/rə(ʊ)’teɪt/vt. 使旋转;使转动;使轮流;vi. 旋转;循环;adj. [植] 辐状的
rhythm/‘rɪð(ə)m/n. 节奏;韵律;(自然、生活中的)规则变化;(声音或运动的)节律,节奏
lag/læg/n. 落后;迟延;防护套;囚犯;桶板;vt. 落后于;押往监狱;加上外套;vi. 滞后;缓缓而行;蹒跚;adj. 最后的
leap/liːp/n. 飞跃;跳跃;vt. 跳跃,跳过;使跃过;vi. 跳,跳跃
reproduce/riːprə’djuːs/vt. 复制;再生;生殖;使…在脑海中重现;vi. 复制;繁殖
toe/təʊ/n. 脚趾;足尖;vt. 用脚尖走;以趾踏触;vi. 动脚尖;用足尖跳舞
shove/ʃʌv/n. 推;挤;vt. 挤;强使;撞;(用手或肩)推,推挤,猛推
wrist/rɪst/n. 手腕;腕关节;vt. 用腕力移动
squeeze/skwiːz/n. 压榨;紧握;拥挤;佣金;vt. 挤;紧握;勒索;vi. 压榨
muscle/‘mʌs(ə)l/n. 肌肉;力量;vt. 加强;使劲搬动;使劲挤出;vi. 使劲行进
thumb/θʌm/n. 拇指;vt. 翻阅;以拇指拨弄;作搭车手势;笨拙地摆弄;vi. 用拇指翻书页;竖起拇指要求搭车
sneak/sniːk/n. 鬼鬼祟祟的人;偷偷摸摸的行为;告密者;vt. 偷偷地做;偷偷取得;vi. 溜;鬼鬼祟祟做事;向老师打小报告;adj. 暗中进行的
deduct/dɪ’dʌkt/vt. 扣除,减去;演绎
telecommunications/‘telɪkə,mjuːnɪ’keɪʃənz/n. .电信,电讯(指用电信、无线电、电视等发送和接收信息);通讯行业:服务类型变更,缴纳话费,账户总览等所有业务均可通过移动设备完成
rural/‘rʊər(ə)l/adj. 农村的,乡下的;田园的,有乡村风味的
suburb/‘sʌbɜːb/n. (城镇的)郊区,近郊,城郊住宅区;边缘
eve/iːv/n. 前夕;傍晚;重大事件关头【Eve 夏娃(女子名)】
internal/ɪn’tɜːn(ə)l/n. 内脏;本质;adj.(公司或组织)内部的;里面的;体内的;(机构)内部的
jury/‘dʒʊərɪ/n. [法] (由12公民组成的)陪审团;评判委员会;adj. 应急的
van/væn/n. 先锋;厢式货车;增值网;vt. 用车搬运
species/‘spiːʃiːz; -ʃɪz; ‘spiːs-/n. [生物] 物种;种类;adj. 物种上的
hell/hel/n. 地狱,令人痛苦的地方(境况);究竟(作加强语气词);训斥;黑暗势力;vi. 过放荡生活;飞驰;int. 该死;见鬼(表示惊奇、烦恼、厌恶、恼怒、失望等)
discharge/dɪs’tʃɑːdʒ/n. 排放;卸货;解雇;vt. 解雇,正式准许(某人)离开;卸下;放出;免除;vi. 排放(气体、液体、烟等);卸货;流出
organism/‘ɔːg(ə)nɪz(ə)m/n. 有机体;生物体;微生物
symbol/‘sɪmb(ə)l/n. 象征;符号;标志
attentive/ə’tentɪv/adj. 留意的,注意的;照顾周到的
famine/‘fæmɪn/n. 饥荒;饥饿,奇缺
ditch/dɪtʃ/n. 沟渠;壕沟;vt. 在…上掘沟;把…开入沟里;丢弃,抛弃,甩掉;vi. 开沟;掘沟
chin/tʃɪn/n. 下巴;聊天;引体向上动作;vt. 用下巴夹住;与…聊天;在单杠上作引体向上动作;vi. 闲谈;作引体向上动作
countdown/‘kaʊntdaʊn/n.(发射航天器等事发之前的)倒计时,倒数读秒
corridor/‘kɒrɪdɔː/n. 走廊,通道
spine/spaɪn/n. 脊柱,脊椎;刺;书脊
lick/lɪk/n. 舔;打;少许;vt. 舔;卷过;鞭打;(非正式)战胜;vi. 舔;轻轻拍打
vein/veɪn/n. 血管;叶脉;[地质] 岩脉;纹理;翅脉;性情;vt. 使成脉络;象脉络般分布于
injection/ɪn’dʒekʃ(ə)n/n. 注射;注射剂,注射物;充血;射入轨道
emit/ɪ’mɪt/vt. 发出(气、热、光、声音等 ),放射;发行;发表
cue/kjuː/n. 提示,暗示;线索;vt. 给…暗示
waken/‘weɪk(ə)n/vt. 唤醒;使觉醒;vi. 醒来;觉醒
fraction/‘frækʃ(ə)n/n. 分数;部分;少量,小部分;稍微

Phrases and expressions

  1. tip the scales 使天平(向某人或某物)倾斜
  2. cast sb. as (把某人)描写成,(将某人)描述为
  3. have relevance to 与…有关
  4. creep in 渐渐影响,逐渐改变
  5. persist in 坚持,执意
  6. make much of 过分重视,过分强调
  7. in the name of 以…的名义
  8. in one's defense 为某人做辩护
  9. be occupied with 忙于做某事
  10. in question 有疑问的,被怀疑的
  11. as is the case with 跟…的情况一样
  12. isolate sb. /sth. from 与…隔离,孤立
  13. make a contribution 做贡献
  14. be/become aware of 意识到,明白,知道
  15. bring about 引起,导致,造成
  16. give in 屈服,让步
  17. roll sb. over (使)翻身
  18. provide sb. with sth. 提供,供应,供给
  19. lag behind 落后
  20. come along 到达,出现
  21. deduct sth. from sth. 从…扣除
  22. on the eve of 在…前日,在…前夕
  23. smell of 有…气味,发出…气味
  24. fill out 填写(正式文件、表格等)

Articles

A

Animals or children?

—— A scientist's choice

图片

Para.1

I am the enemy! I am one of those cursed, cruel physician scientists involved in animal research. These rumors sting, for I have never thought of myself as an evil person. I became a children’s doctor because of my love for children and my supreme desire to keep them healthy. During medical school and residency, I saw many children die of cancer and bloodshed from injury - circumstances against which medicine has made great progress but still has a long way to go. More importantly, I also saw children healthy thanks to advances in medical science such as infant breathing support, powerful new medicines and surgical techniques and the entire field of organ transplantation. My desire to tip the scales in favor of healthy, happy children drew me to medical research.

我就是那个敌人!我就是那些被人诅咒的、残忍的、搞动物实验的医生科学家之一。这些谣言刺痛了我,因为我从来没想到自己是一个邪恶的人。我成为一位儿科医生,因为我爱孩子,也因为我的最大愿望是让他们保持健康。在医学院学习和住院医生实习时,我看到了许多儿童死于癌症和受伤流血——虽然对此医学已取得很大进步,但远非完善。更重要的是,我还看到孩子们能保持健康得益于医学的进步,如婴儿呼吸支持器,功效强大的新药物和外科手术技术及整个器官移植领域的发展。我希望孩子们健康快乐,这促使我从事医学研究。

Para.2

My accusers have twisted the truth into a fable and cast me as the devil. They claim that I have no moral compass, that I torture innocent animals for the sole purpose of career advancement, and that my experiments have no relevance to medicine. Meanwhile, an uncaring public barely watches, convinced that the issue has no significance, and publicity-conscious senators and politicians increasingly give way to the lobbying of animal rights activists.

控诉我的人把真相歪曲成一则神话,并把我描写成恶魔。他们声称我没有道德界限,我折磨那些无辜动物的唯一目的就是为了自己的职业升迁,而我的实验根本与医药毫不相关。与此同时,无动于衷的公众几乎不闻不问,相信这个议题毫无意义,而具有宣传意识的参议员和政治家们却对动物权利活动家的游说不断作出让步。

Para.3

We, in medical research, have also been unbelievably uncaring. We have allowed the most extreme animal rights protesters to creep in and frame the issue as one of “animal fraud” and hatred. We have persisted in our belief that a knowledgeable public would consent to the importance of animal research for public health. Perhaps we have been mistaken in not responding to the emotional tone of the argument. Perhaps we should have responded to those sad slogans and posters of animals by waving equally sad posters of children dying of cancer or external wounds.

我们这些从事医学研究的人也显得令人难以置信的冷漠。我们允许最极端的动物权利活动家渐渐侵入,任凭他们把此类研究诬陷为“动物欺诈”和对动物的仇恨。我们一直坚信,有知识的公众会赞同动物研究对公众健康的重要性。也许我们的错误是没有对这场争论的感性基调作出反应。也许我们早应该挥动着儿童死于癌症或外伤的同样令人伤心的海报,来回应那些关于动物受害的伤感标语及海报。

Para.4

In the animal rights forum, much is made of the volume of pain these animals experience in the name of medical science. Activists deny that we are trying to help and say it is evidence of our evil and cruel nature. A more reasonable argument, however, can be advanced in our defense. Life is often cruel to animals and human beings. Teenagers are flung from trucks and suffer severe head injuries. Young children barely able to walk find themselves at the bottom of swimming pools while a parent is occupied with something else. From everyday germs to gang violence, no life is free of pain. Physicians hoping to relieve the eternal suffering of these tragedies have only three choices: 1) create an animal model of the problem to understand the process and test new therapies; 2) experiment on human beings (some experiments will succeed, most will fail); or 3) leave medical knowledge static, hoping that accidental discoveries will lead us forward.

动物权利论坛大肆宣扬我们如何以医学的名义使这些动物经受巨大的痛苦。动物权利活动家们否认我们正在努力帮助人类,并说这是我们邪恶和残忍本性的证据。然而,一个更合理的论点可用来为我们进行辩护。生活往往对动物和人类都是残酷的。青少年被甩到卡车外,导致头部严重受伤。还不太会走路的孩子们溺水沉到游泳池底部时,他们的家长正忙于其他事务。从常见的细菌侵害到帮派的暴力,没有谁能不受伤害。医生们希望能永远减轻这些悲剧带给人们身体上的痛苦,他们只有三个选择:1)用动物做实验,以了解整个医疗过程和测试新的疗法;2)进行人体实验(一些实验会成功,大多数会失败);3)让对医疗知识的了解处于停滞状态,希望偶然的发现会带领我们向前。

Para.5

Some animal rights activists would suggest an optional fourth choice, claiming that computer models can create animal experiments, thus omitting actual experiments. Computers can imitate the effects of well-understood principles on complex systems, as in the application of the laws of physics to airplane and automobile design. However, when the principles themselves are in question, as is the case with the complex biological systems of human life under study, computer modeling alone is of little value.

一些动物权利活动家会提出第四个选项,他们声称计算机可以模拟动物实验,这样就可省去真实的实验过程。计算机可以模拟一些为人所熟知的原理在复杂系统中的应用效果,就如物理规律在飞机和汽车设计中的应用那样。然而,当原理本身有问题时,就跟正处于研究阶段的复杂的生物系统的情况一样,仅靠计算机模拟成效甚微。

Para.6

One of the terrifying effects of arresting the use of animals in medical research is that the impact will not be felt for years or even decades. Drugs to cure infection will remain undiscovered, surgical and diagnostic techniques will remain undeveloped, and fundamental biological processes that might have been understood will remain mysteries. There is the danger that quick decisions by well-meaning politicians will create resolution to diplomatically satisfy the small minority of loud protestors while the consequences and damaging impact of those decisions will not be apparent until long after.

阻止用动物来进行医学研究的可怕后果之一是,其影响要到几年甚至几十年后才能被人知晓:治愈感染的新药物将无法被发现,外科手术和诊断技术将得不到发展,那些有可能被发掘的基本生物学进程将是未解之谜。危险的是,那些善意的政治家匆忙作出决定后拿出的解决方案只是策略性地满足了那一小部分大声疾呼的示威者,这些决定的后果和造成的破坏性影响要很久才会显现。

Para.7

Fortunately, most of us enjoy good health, and the agony of watching one’s child die has become a rare experience. Yet our good fortune should not make us unappreciative. Protection from serious sickness and drugs to combat heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke are all based on animal research. Most complex surgical procedures such as heart or hip surgery and organ transplantation surgeries were initially developed in animals. Techniques to replace defective genes, the cause of so much disease, as well as the development of synthetic organs are presently undergoing animal studies. These studies, and any subsequent advances, will effectively end if animal research is severely restricted.

幸运的是,我们大多数人都享有健康的体魄,眼睁睁地看着孩子死亡之苦已不多见。然而,对于能够享受健康或享受医学进步能带来的健康我们不应该不心存感激。对严重疾病的预防和用于心脏病、高血压和中风的药物都基于对动物的研究。大多复杂的外科手术,如心脏或髋关节手术、器官移植手术最初都是在动物实验中进行的。取代导致众多疾病的缺陷基因的技术,以及人造器官的发展,目前正处于动物实验研究阶段。如果动物研究严格受限,这些研究和其后的任何进展都将彻底地宣告结束。

Para.8

In America today, death has become an event isolated from our daily existence. As a doctor who has watched many children die and seen their parents’ infinite grief, I am particularly angered by any minute expression of caring for the suffering of creatures and so little for sick and dying human beings. People are too protected from the reality of human life and death and what it means.

在今天的美国,死亡已经成为我们日常生活中孤立少见的事。作为一个看见过许多儿童死亡和他们父母悲痛至极的医生,我感到特别愤怒的是,有人对动物的痛苦表达入微,但对生病和生命垂危的人却冷漠无情。人们受到了太多的保护,以至于他们感觉不到现实世界里的生与死,也感觉不到其所代表的真实意义。

Para.9

Make no mistake, however. I would never advocate needless cruel treatment of animals. The animal rights movement has made a contribution in making us more aware of animals’ needs and the need to search harder for suitable alternatives. But if the more radical members of this movement are successful in threatening further research, their efforts will bring about a tragedy that will cost many lives. Hence the real question is whether an uncaring majority can be aroused to protect its future against a loud, but misdirected, minority.

但别搞错,我从来不提倡对动物实行不必要的残忍对待。动物权利运动使我们更加意识到动物应有的权利,以及努力寻找合适替代品的需要。但是,如果有更多的动物权利运动的激进分子成功地阻止了进一步的研究,那他们的努力会造成以许多人的生命为代价的悲剧。因此,真正的问题是我们能否唤起大多数漠不关心的民众来保护动物实验的将来,以反对嗓门挺大、但却是被误导的那一小部分人。

B

The right to live

—— A dog's account

图片

Para.1

When I was a puppy, I made you laugh and you called me your child. Despite the chewed shoes and pillows, I became your best friend. Whenever I was “bad”, you’d shake your finger at me and ask, “How could you?” Then you’d give in and roll me over on the rug for a rub.

当我是一只小狗狗时,我逗你笑,你称我为你的孩子。尽管我啃坏了家里的鞋子和枕头,我仍是你最好的朋友。每当我使坏的时候,你会对我摇摇你的手指,问我:“你怎么能这样?”然后你就会让步,把我翻过来放在地毯上揉一揉。

图片

Para.2

My housetraining took a long time because you were terribly busy, but we worked on that together until there were no more stains. I remember nights, sleeping in your bed listening to your dreams, and believing that I’d been provided with a royal life. We rotated between long walks to the park, car rides, and stops for ice cream.

因为你忙不过来,训练我在指定地点大小便花了很长时间,但我们一起度过了这一关,直到屋内没有便溺污渍为止。我记得那些夜晚,我睡在你的床上,听着你的梦想,并相信我一直过着皇室般的生活。我们重复轮换着做这些事:漫步去公园,坐车,停下来买冰淇淋。

Para.3

Gradually, the rhythm of life changed as you lagged behind, spending more time at work and searching for a human mate. I waited patiently, comforted you through heartbreaks and disappointments, never scolded your bad decisions, and leaped happily when you came home or fell in love.

渐渐地,由于你花了更多的时间在工作和寻找伴侣上,造成的拖拉改变了我们的生活节奏。我耐心地等待着,在你伤心和失望时给予安慰,我从来不指责你做出的糟糕决定;当你回家或恋爱时,我为你欢呼雀跃。

图片

Para.4

Your new wife wasn’t a “dog person”, but I still welcomed her and showed her affection. I was happy because you were happy. When you reproduced - when your babies came along, I shared your excitement. I loved their little fingers and toes, and wanted to raise them, too. Only you both worried I might hurt them, so I was shoved into another room or my dog cage.

你的新婚妻子不是“爱狗人士”,但我仍然欢迎她,并对她示好。我高兴是因为你高兴。当你生儿育女,宝宝来临时,我和你一样激动。我爱他们小小的手指和脚趾,也想照料他们。但是你们俩担心我会伤害到他们,把我硬塞入另一个房间或我的狗窝。

Para.5

As they grew, I became their friend. They buried their hands up to their wrists in my fur and pulled themselves up on unsteady legs, investigating my ears and squeezing my muscles. I loved everything about them, especially the touch of their clumsy fingers and thumbs. I would have defended them with my very life.

他们慢慢长大,我成了他们的朋友。他们喜欢把整个手都埋在我的毛下,并摇摇晃晃地站立起来,检查我的耳朵,挤压我的肌肉。我爱他们的一切,尤其是他们用笨拙的手指和拇指触摸时的感觉。我甚至会用我的生命捍卫他们。

图片

Para.6

I’d sneak into their beds, listening to their worries and secret dreams. Together we waited for the sound of your car in the driveway. There had been a time when you kept a photo of me in your wallet. But slowly, I went from being your dog to just the dog, and you deducted all the money you spent on me from your budget.

我会偷偷溜进他们的被窝,倾听他们的烦恼和秘密的梦想。我们一起等待着你驾车回来在房前车道上的声音。曾经一度,你把我的照片放在你的钱包里。但慢慢地,我从“你的狗”变成了“那条狗”,你从预算中减去了所有用在我身上的钱。

Para.7

Suddenly, you had a career opportunity in telecommunications in another city and you all moved to a third-story apartment that didn’t allow pets. Our rural life in the suburbs was over. On the eve of your departure, there was no internal debate -the jury had already decided. You’d made the right decision for your “family”, but I remember a time when I was part of your family.

突然,你在另一个城市有了一个在电信领域工作的机会,你和你的家人要搬到一个不许养宠物的三层楼高的公寓去了。我们在郊区的乡村生活结束了。你们离开的前一天,家里没有内部的辩论——陪审团已经做出决定。你为你的“家庭”作出了正确的决定,然而,我还记得,曾几何时,我还是你家庭的一员。

图片

Para.8

I was excited about riding with the family in the van until we arrived at the animal shelter. It smelled of strange species of dogs and cats, of hell and hopelessness. You filled out the paperwork and said, “I know you will find a good home for her.” But they weren’t enthusiastic, knowing how difficult it is to discharge old dogs.

我与家人坐在面包车上,曾一度兴奋不已,直到我们到达了动物收容所。那儿有陌生的狗和猫的味道,我感到如地狱般地绝望。你填写了资料,并说:“我知道你们会为她找到一个好的家。”但他们并不热情,因为他们知道要送走一条年老的狗是多么的困难。

Para.9

Your son cried, “No, Daddy! Please don’t let them take my dog!” I worried what lessons he’d learned about friendship and loyalty, love and responsibility, and respect for a living organism. You patted my head goodbye, avoiding my eyes and refusing to take my collar and walking rope with you, the last symbols of our relationship.

你的儿子哭喊道:“不,爸爸,请不要让他们带走我的狗!”我担心他在友谊和忠诚,爱心和责任,以及如何尊重一个活的生命方面学到了什么。你拍拍我的头,跟我告别,却避开了我的眼睛,并拒绝带走剩下的最后象征我们关系的颈圈与遛狗绳。

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Para.10

The two nice ladies were as attentive to us in the shelter as they were expected. They fed us, but I had lost my appetite and was experiencing a famine of hope. At first, whenever anyone passed my pen, I rushed to the front, hoping that you had changed your mind about ditching me or that this was all a bad dream. Later, I hoped it would at least be someone who cared, who might scratch my chin and love me again. Eventually, I retreated to a corner and waited for the countdown of my days.

那两位好心的女士,如同人们期望的一样,在收容所里细心地照顾着我们。她们给我们喂吃的,但我没有胃口,正经历着希望的饥荒。起先,每当有人经过我的栏圈,我就会奔到前面,希望你改变了抛弃我的打算,希望这只是一场噩梦而已。后来,我希望至少会是某个在乎我的人,他会轻挠我的下巴,重新爱我。最终,我退缩到了一个角落里,等待我生命的倒计时。

Para.11

I heard her footsteps at the end of the day and I padded along the corridor after her to a separate room. She placed me on the table, rubbed her hand down my spine and told me not to worry. She gently placed a tight rubber band around my leg as a tear ran down her cheek. I licked her hand in the same way I used to comfort you as she slid the needle into my vein. As I felt the cool injection coursing through my body, I lay down sleepily, looked into her kind eyes and emitted a low cry, “How could you?”

那天夜幕降临之前,我听到了她的脚步声。我沿着走廊轻轻地跟她走到一个单独的房间。她把我抱到桌上,用手顺着我的脊椎揉搓着,告诉我不用担心。当她轻轻地用一根很紧的橡皮带扎住了我的腿时,一滴泪水顺着她的脸颊流了下来。当她把针推入我的静脉时,我舔了舔她的手,就像过去常常安慰你时那样。当我觉得冰凉的注射剂在体内流动,我昏昏沉沉地躺了下来,看着她那双善良的眼睛,喃喃低鸣:“你怎么能这样?”

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Para.12

Perhaps she took the cue from my sad eyes because she whispered, “I’m so sorry.” She patted my head and explained that I would waken in a better place where I wouldn’t be ignored, abused or abandoned - a place of love and light. With my last fraction of energy, I tried to convey to her with a quick move of my tail that my “How could you?” was not meant for her. It was for you, my master. I will think of you and wait for you forever, hoping everyone in your life will continue to love you and show you never-ending loyalty as I did. Goodbye.

也许她从我哀怨的眼神中得到暗示,因为她低声说:“我很抱歉。”她拍了拍我的头,并解释说,我醒来时会在一个更好的地方,一个我不会再受忽略、遭虐待或被遗弃的地方,一个有关爱和光明的地方。我用尽全身最后一丝力气,向她快速地摇了摇尾巴,想让她知道我的这句“你怎么能这样?”并不是对她说的。我是对你说的,我的主人。我会永远怀念你,永远等待你,我只希望你生活中的每个人都将继续爱你,并像我那样,永远忠诚。别了。